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HIS 104 Midterm: Notes and Exam Questions

Course Code
HIS 104
Daniel J. Gargola
Study Guide

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2500 years of history with a lot of change
Civilization- European, Egyptian, changes over time
Society- live in groups, act in groups, like a corporation (social form) designed to do something,
only persists for a long as people need/want it, shifting
Poetry- Odyssey Epic Poem one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Family- earn a living or supported, some work together No clear beginning or end to it
Only first became visible with writing but still existed before that Archaeology-
Societies are connected to civilization
30 years people used specific writing system
Looking at 3100 BC first traces of script, ends in AD
Greek and Latin alphabet derived from 1000 BC, still exist Earliest text in Greek alphabet
around 800 BC
Latin about a century later
When one civilization ends it does not mean one does not survive
Literary traditions- remembering/fame through statues, great ideas and ideals shown
Way of teaching education is very stable
Greek in ancient times after you learn to read and write you memorize the Iliad and
Everything is hand written and copied by hand, practiced by copying words over and
over again.
Reason we have a lot of copies today is because copying texts was required in school
Creates civilization- education system, persistence of ideals
Earliest Civilizations-impact later societies in
Europe Early Mesopotamia- cities (small towns),
5000 BC
Built in brick, unfired brick or baked then becomes indestructible Built on top of
ruins using old ruins
Brick is long lasting, so we can tell that people were building towns 3500 BC (55
thousand people living in it)
First writing appears
Simple and complicated writing
Writing with fewer characters
Egypt- built mostly out of mud, but doesn’t last
Hard to pick out where people lived because materials didn’t last, houses invisible
Long lasting things like pit graves, tombs, dig. A hole and build a structure and deceased
are put in that, buried with rich goods with things they need in next world 4500 BC

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Mesopotamia independent society governing itself, building of empires one city
dominated another
Egypt more political statement 3100 BC, unified for next 25 centuries, more stable
Writing systems-
-Mesopotamia- 3500 BC wedged shape, in textbook, scribe write in wet clay, clay tablets, not
important write on clay tablet and slowly dries out, get it wet and make another tablet, if you
wanted to keep it then bake it, basically pottery, pieces of broken tablets last forever, everyday
things survive, 1900 symbols, symbols don’t match language, doesn’t stand for sound just
images, start standing for sounds, one symbol stands for an entire syllable, 250-300 symbols, if
you can’t draw you can’t write well, literacy not common here
-Egypt, papyrus-word paper, reeds used, these don’t last that long, written on stone longest
lasting writings, we know less about Egypt, one language,
Writing in Mesopotamia primary use keeping track of things, people, societies were
Visible is the tablet in temples Kings visible thru palaces
2300 BC city of Lagash, palace was paying (feeding, grain, meat, cheese, clothes) each
year 6,000 women to make beer, make cloth, farm, very organized economy
Palace ground floor store room 25-30,000 olive oil, a lot of cows and sheep (produce
wool) on large scale, using the entire island
Chariots, weapons
Bureaucracy is as old as writing
Egypt- organization of economy and writing, kings collecting taxes (grain, fish), keeping
track of who pays taxes, kings stand at the center, use writing to keep track, glorifying
kings, recording poems and stories overtime, original purpose bureaucracy
Copper/bronze age- weapon was eventually made out of copper and bronze Bronze
sword vs wood club
Copper not common and tin is rare
King getting a steady supply of copper and tin is important
Island of Crete using wool of sheep to trade off iron, trying to buy copper materials
Making luxury goods, jewelry, make things they can trade with
Modern search for oil
Empire built to get closer to get something you need
World view- what is important, how it works, hard to come to terms with that others view the
world different
Religion- 18th/19th century
No distinction between religion and government World views are different
Polytheistic- believe in many gods

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1. Goddess of love and war tries to kill Gilgamesh Iliad- Greek stories of Gods
2. People challenging Gods- Greeks, Mesopotamia, romans, only heroes can defy them
but only for so long
After life- same as this life but less work
If you want a good afterlife you have to be a good person in this life
Pharaoh- River flows north to south Gods of Syria were bad needed Gods of Egypt to help
make the river flow the right way
All societies political authority is someway related to how they world works and why it works the
way it does
Ancient Greece 2,000-
1,100 BCE
Art style Greeks borrowed ideas from Egyptians
Writing Greeks borrowed ideas from to the East now known as Syria Writing after 800
Phoenicians first alphabet, first to make transition from syllabic script to alphabetic one
250-300 signs
1,000 Egyptian signs 20-40 usual Alphabet
Semantic language- Phoenicians,
Greek script easier to read and sound out each word and letter.
Greeks used it to write poetry
In Greek world writing does not have bureaucratic purpose
City-states central town surrounded by agricultural land people can farm, nowhere near the
size of what we call a city
Athens sent 9,000 men
Athens and Syracuse biggest, about the size of Lexington
Sparta- militarily dominate power, 5,000 men
Very small communities
Polis- fundamental unit of political and social (policy, politics, politeness), key concept
is freedom, liberty, does not mean the same thing in modern America, Communally free,
we are free if our polis is free, if are polis can govern itself under its own law It is free, if
outsiders tell us what to do it is not free, community governs itself under its own laws,
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