Study Guides (400,000)
US (230,000)
UK (700)
HIS (10)
Study Guide

HIS 104 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - City, Ancient Greece, Oedipus


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 104
Professor
Daniel J. Gargola
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 109 pages of the document.
HIS 104

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

~ History 104 Lecture #1 ~
Introduction to the Course
08/28/19
o The first civilizations were Egypt, Mesopotamia, etc. 5,000 years ago.
o Civilizations borrowed from these first populations.
o What aspects of these ancient civilizations did others find worthy of imitation?
o Mesopotamia
o Cities and towns made of brick
o Modern day Iraq
o Egypt
o Rural
o Politically unified, periods of disunity are rare
o One way they are similar is kingship.
o If you look at their archaeological remains, this is clear.
o Important people became kings and these kings had relationships with the cultures’ gods.
Several examples of the early literature from these civilizations concerned the lives
and duties of these kings.
o Other people decided they wanted to be kings, too.
From an early date, kings were associated with two animals:
Lions
Bulls
o Symbols of strength
o Kings wanted their subjects to think they were the most powerful
force in the world, even more powerful than animals like lions and
bulls.
Gilgamesh defeats a bull, wants eternal life through fame
Achilles wants to be a powerful king like his father
o These illustrations of physical power were all propaganda, kings were often not fierce and
strong like they were portrayed.
o When you look at Greek and Roman art from the Hellenistic period, kings were portrayed as
always youthful even if the king is actually 70 and weak.
o Across these cultural frontiers of the ancient world, there is a prevalent image of kingship that
portrays them as exceptionally strong, always victorious, and very powerful.
o You can also pick up a little bit of this in literature, not just art.
Craze poetry
A king makes an appearance and the people sing
o People in other places wanted to be like kings, so that is one example of something people wanted to
imitate.
o People started dressing like kings and trying to assert dominance in areas that did not
actually have kings.
o A king is famous.
o Egypt wasn’t as concerned by fame as Mesopotamia was, but their kings were all famous.
One way for kings to ensure their image lived on was to commission great works of
art and literature that portrayed them in the way they wanted and that would live
on long after they die.
o What distinguishes men from animals is that men want to establish eternal fame through their great
deeds, and it is the job of historians to preserve the memory of these deeds.”
o Kings built a lot of monuments.
o The statue of Patterson, first president of the UK, outside Patterson Office Tower
o Kings wanted to be praised.
o The separation of church and state was not a concern in the ancient world, but it does not follow that
religion was incredibly important to everyone.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Kings were thought to have divine favor.
o Why am I king? Because God said so.
o If things go your way, this is clear evidence that your deity is on your side.
That’s why they always wanted to be portrayed as strong and victorious whether
that was true or not because if everyone knew they lost, they’d think the deity was
not longer on their side and thus they should no longer be king.
o It’s the king’s job to appease the gods and keep them on their side.
Famine, drought, inclement weather, disease, military failure, etc. were all evidence
that the king has lost favor with the deity.
o Mesopotamian kings are portrayed as agents of gods.
o Egyptian kings are seen as gods themselves.
o Providential writing spans across all kinds of cultural and chronological frontiers.
o If I am successful, my success proves that the gods are on my side.
o If I am not successful, my lack of success proves that the gods are no longer on my side.
Aristophanes’s The Wealthy One
o The good people don’t always come out on top.
o It all starts with kings.
o At the beginning, what you have is kings that are claiming that because of their divine favor,
they are stronger, more successful, and better able to protect the kingdom than any others.
o These assertions are true of both ancient Mesopotamian and ancient Egyptian kings.
o This is not technically propaganda, but they are similar.
o Propaganda is meant solely to deceive.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version