KHP 222 Final: KHP 222 Final
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10 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology and Health Promotion
Course Code
KHP 222
Professor
Benjamin Montemayor

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KHP 222 Final Marijuana History • Marijuana (cannabis) is one of the world’s oldest drugs • During WW2, it was planted marijuana (hemp) for its fiber • People started smoking it due to its euphoric effect in the 1920s • Banned in 1937 Species and Forms • Ganja: top leaves and flowers of female cannabis plant and considered best quality marijuana • Bhang: lower leaves, stems and seeds of the plant and considered poor quality marijuana • Sinsemilla (without seeds): unfertilized female cannabis with higher THC levels • 2 other forms are hashish and hash oils - Higher THC content than cannabis sativa • Hashish, taken from the resin of the cannabis plant is usually smoked in pipe • Hash oil is made by boiling resin in alcohol and has a THC content of 60% mixed with smoked tobacco Characteristics • The primary, mood-altering, psychoactive agent in marijuana is THC and there are several factors influencing its levels • Female plants produce more resin and flowers containing higher THC levels • Marijuana contains over 500 chemicals in which 60 of them are unique to cannabinoids • Marijuana releases 5 times the tar into the lungs than cigarettes Cannabis Species and Forms • Sativa - Most widespread - Tall, woody stem reaching height of 20 feet • Indica - Grown for psychoactive properties - Grows to height of 3-4 feet • Ruderalis - Short growing season and low potency Strains • What creates it? - Its genotype is the blueprint - Its phenotype is how the environment affects it • Hybridization - Intermix of global indigenous varieties - Makes strains unlimited Points of Origin • Cannabis plant can be grown almost anywhere • Production is especially high in Mexico and Colombia • Indoor cultivation makes it easier to avoid law enforcement and create higher THC levels • Profits of indoor cultivation are higher because marijuana plants can be harvested 4-6 times annually th • Marijuana is the 4 most common drug worldwide after nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol Methods of Administration • Marijuana can be smoked or ingested • Smoked THC is thrice the levels compared to ingested. However, marijuana’s actions last longer if ingested. • Most smokers roll marijuana into a cigarette or blunt • Vaporizing • Edibles • Ingestible oils • Tinctures • Topical • Dabbing Absorption • When marijuana is smoked, THC reaches brain in few seconds and peaks at 30 minutes • If ingested, the effects may not be felt for a few hours since less THC is absorbed • Marijuana is fat soluble and its metabolites can stay in the fatty tissues of heavy users for 2-3 weeks after use Tolerance and Dependence • Tolerance is more likely to develop among daily users • An indication of tolerance is heavy users are still likely to do cognitive tasks • Most experts agree that psychological rather than physical dependence occurs • Should dependence occur, it’s more likely to be motivated by psychosocial rather than physiological factors Facts • Only about 9% of users become clinically dependent • 42% of people have tried marijuana at least once • Legalizing marijuana would generate 8.7 billion in taxes • In 1975, Alaska Supreme Court ruled that an adult’s right to use and have a small amount of marijuana was protected. • Over 800,000 in the US are arrested annually for marijuana use • For the most part, marijuana is legal in North Korea • In Colorado, marijuana dispensers outnumber Starbucks 3:1 • Bob Marley was buried with a bible, guitar, and a bud of marijuana • You would need to smoke 1,500 lbs of marijuana to die from an overdose. No one has ever died specifically of an overdose. Effects • In a study of first year college students, over 9% had a cannabis use disorder resulting in concentration problems and missing of classes • Marijuana impairs perceptual and motor skills ability along with the ability to stay awake Psychological Effects • Endocannabinoid system - Involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain sensation, mood, and memory • Marijuana increases the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the experience of euphoria • Detrimental psychological reactions are unusual, though high doses can induce anxiety, hallucinations, and paranoia Cognitive Effects and Amotivational Syndrome • Impairs short term memory • Heavy users were impaired in skills involving expression but not vocab, math, nor reading comprehension • Amotivational syndrome: when heavy users are reportedly unable to concentrate and are unmotivated, apathetic, lacking ambition, and not achievement oriented Physical Effects • Appetite - Users consistently feel an increase in appetite • Reproductive system - In males, marijuana decreases testosterone levels, sperm count, and libido - In females, it may inhibit ovulation • Respiratory system - In marijuana, there’s 20 times the ammonia and 5 times the hydrogen cyanide as cigarettes Medical Applications • Glaucoma • Nausea and vomiting • Reduces epileptic seizures • Stops cancer cells from spreading • Decreases anxiety • Slow progression of Alzheimer’s • Eases pain of MS • Muscle spasms • Crohn’s disease • Arthritis • Parkinson’s disease • PTSD Decriminalization and Legalization • In 1972, the presidential commission on marijuana and drug abuse recommended the decriminalization of marijuana • In 2006, the FDA reaffirmed that marijuana should remain a Schedule I drug and had no current acceptable medical use • An argument against marijuana being a gateway drug though most marijuana smokers don’t proceed to use other drugs • In states that legalized medical marijuana, rates of marijuana use, abuse, and dependence increase Days Dedicated to Marijuana • Eeyore’s birthday • 4/20 Opioids (Narcotics) Characteristics • Opium poppy - Plant from which narcotics are derived • Narcotic - An opium based CNS depressant used for pain relief and diarrhea • Opiate - Class of drugs derived from opium • Opioid - Drugs with similar characteristics to opi
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