Bio 171 exam 3 study guide

13 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 171
Professor
Josephine Kurdziel

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Exam3StudyGuideLecture19CompareandcontrastalltheevolutionaryprocessesintermsofeffectsongeneticvariationandallelefrequenciesoNaturalselectionoSexualselectionoGeneticdriftoGeneflowoMutationoOnlyevolutionaryprocessescanchangeallelefrequenciesExplaintheHardyWeinbergPrincipleinyourownwordsoStatesthatafteronegenerationofrandommatinggenotypefrequencies22fortwoallelesatonegenewillbep2pqq1oGenotypeandallelefrequencieswillremainconstantinsucceedinggenerationsaslongascertainassumptionsaremetExplaintheassumptionsofHardyWeinbergEquilibriumoPopulationsizeisverylargenogeneticdriftoPopulationisclosednogeneflowoNomutationsoccurringatthegeneunderstudyoMatingisrandomnosexualselectionnoinbreedingoAllgenotypesinpopulationhaveequalchanceofsurvivingandreproducingnoselectionApplytheHWEmodeltomakepredictionsaboutalleleandgenotypefrequenciesinapopulationopfreqofAAAAa2oqfreqofaaaAa2InterpretdataonalleleandgenotypefrequenciesandinferwhichevolutionaryprocessesareactingonthepopulationbeingstudiedLecture20CompareandcontrastgeneflowgeneticdriftandallthetypesofselectionwithrespecttohowtheyimpactlevelsofgeneticvariationoGeneticdrifttheprocessbywhichchanceeventsleadtochangesinallelefrequenciesinapopulationhappensmorefrequentlyinsmallpopulationsoGeneflowactstohomogenizepopulationsmakespopulationshavesimilarallelefrequenciesAnalyzehowgeneticdriftandgeneflowwillaffectallelefrequenciesoGeneticdriftreduceslevelsofgeneticvariationinpopulationsoGeneflowreducesgeneticdifferencesamongpopulationsApplypopulationthinkingtoexplainevolutionarychangeoGeneticbottleneckeffectadecreaseingeneticvariationofapopulationduetogeneticdriftcausedbyadrasticdeclineinpopulationsizeoPopulationbottleneckdrasticreductioninpopulationsizeoGeneticdriftfoundereffectsIfagroupleavesapopulationemigratestoanewareaandstartsanewpopulationIfthefoundinggroupissmallitsallelefrequenciesprobablydifferfromthoseofthesourcepopulationoGeneflowLotsofgeneflowbetween2populationsmakesthemgeneticallymoresimilarandreducesgeneticvariationCancounteracttheeffectsofselectionorgeneticdriftbyintroducingnewallelesMayincreaseordecreaseaveragepopulationfitnessbyintroducinghighorlowfitnessallelesLecture21ExplainthemajortypesofmutationsandtheireffectsonproteinstructureaswellastheirevolutionarysignificanceoSomaticmutationsoccurinnonreproductivecellsandwontbepassedontooffspringoPointmutationachangeinasinglenucleotideSynonymoussilentmutationnochangeintheproteinstructureNonsynonymousmissensemutationreplacementsubstitutionchangesproteinstructureNonsensemutationanucleotidesubstitutionthatcreatesastopcodonwhichcreatesanonfunctionalproteinoInsertionsdeletionsFrameshiftmutationwhenaninsertionordeletionthatisnotanexactmultipleofthreenucleotideschangesthereadingframeoftranslationandmakesanonfunctionalproteinLossofhemoglobinproteindeleteriousmutationframeshiftmutationCompareandcontrastmutationgeneflowgeneticdriftandallthetypesofselectionwithrespecttohowtheyimpactlevelsofgeneticvariationoMutationdoeslittletochangeallelefrequenciesoMutationhastobecoupledwithotherevolutionaryprocessesselectiondriftorgeneflowtocausesignificantchangesinallelefrequenciesoMutationsincreasegeneticvariationAnalyzehowmutationwillaffectallelefrequenciesoDoesnotchangeallelefrequenciesonitsownExplainwhattypeofmutationsledtotheevolutionofanantifreezeproteininnotothenioidfishesandthelossofhemoglobinproteininwhitebloodedicefishesoDuplicationledtotheantifreezeproteininthenotothenioidfishesoMostnotothenioidshaveafunctionalhemoglobinproteinbuttheicefishlineageproducesnohemoglobinproteinitsglobingenesarejustfragmentsoftheoriginalgenes
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