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CHEM 130
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Exam3Review Chapter14:ChemicalEquilibrium · Chemicalequilibrium: state of reaction mixture when the forward and reverse reactions equal (the reaction have NOT stopped!) · Equilibriumconstant(K ) c c d a b o Kc= C D A B for the reaction aA + bB ↔ cC + dD o A, B, C and D are reactants and products o a, b, c, and d are coefficients in the balanced chemical equation o Kc< 1 reverse reaction favored o Kc= 1 neither direction is favored o Kc˃ 1 forward reaction favored · Equilibriumconstant(K ): an equilibrium constant for a gaseous reaction p in terms of partial pressures o Kp= K (cT) Δn o Δn = c+d-a-b (stoichiometric coefficients for gas reactants and products) · ReactionQuotient(Q) o Expression is the same as equilibrium constant expression but concentration values aren’t those at equilibrium o If Qc> K ,cthe reaction will go to the left o If Qc< K ,cthe reaction will go to the right o If Q = K , the reaction mixture is at equilibrium c c · Calculatingequilibriumconstants o Write the equilibrium constant expression in terms of products and reactants o Always make an ICE table (initial, equilibrium, change) o Substitute ‘change’ expressions (in terms of x) into the equilibrium constant expression and solve o Quadratic equation (NOT listed on PT packet!): · Le Chatelier’sPrinciple: when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or a concentration, the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable o Add reactants or remove products: reaction shifts to right (more product is produced) o Remove reactants or add products: reaction shifts to left o Decrease volume (which increase pressure): reaction shifts to side with fewer moles of gas o Increase volume: reaction shifts to side with more moles of gas o Endothermic reaction: heat is a reactant, reaction shifts left o Exothermic reaction: heat is a product, reaction shifts right · Effectofacatalyst: catalyst increases the rate of reaction but is NOT consumed in the reaction; catalyst doesn’t affect the equilibrium composition Chapter15:AcidsandBases · AcidandBaseStrength o Strong acids and bases break into their ions completely.  They are strongelectrolytes. o Weak acids and bases remain mainly as molecules or in their formula units. There are sixstrong acids and sixstrong bases you must know: Acids Bases Name Formula Name Formula Hydrochloric acid HCl Lithium hydroxide LiOH Hydrobromic acid HBr Sodium hydroxide NaOH Hydroiodic acid HI Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 Nitric acid HNO 3 Strontium Sr(OH) 2 hydroxide Sulfuric acid H2SO 4 Barium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 Perchloric acid HClO 4 Potassium KOH hydroxide ** Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
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