Comm 101 Fina Exam Study Guide

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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Communication Studies
COMM 101

Comm 101 Final Exam Study Guide Week 9: Representation, Ideology and Discourse Representation (as construction of meaning): • Representation is not reality o Re-presents it, draws from it, reiterates it o Makes meaning o “funhouse mirror” metaphor o As long as the same stories are being told in advertisements  the representations will stay the same  If media re-tells a story  change the way it is viewed in our society • Makes sense of the world, but also constructs it o Visually semiotics o Narratively  plot/story, characters o Ideologically, discursively • What it is o “Retells” stories in habitual ways o Can shape understanding, codes o Can change and evolve o Does not come from a vacuum  Learned from society  Maintained or changed • What does representation do? • What is it about? o Meaning o Social structures o Power: who gets to represent someone, how, who has access to the media  Eg: if dominant narrative in the media blames the poor for their own poverty, then welfare can be cut • Media & Representation o Primary source of stories & images o Never neutral o Fix representations, circulate symbols, provide narratives, definitions, representations of society o Institutions develop habitual ways of representing BUT viewers are not passive • Politics of Representation o If representation can shape how people are seen THEN o Changing representation, changing significance can shape a cultural politics and material outcomes  Gender  Race  Masculinity o Performing/Changing social dynamics o Cultural politics = no I won’t wear a skirt, I won’t be a tough guy o Physical bodies change as a result Language • Constructs meaning Culture • Cultural set of meaning • Race & Gender o Not biological or innate o But assumptions is that race is real or that gender explains everything about someone o Erases culture, social factors o Simplistic explanation o Codes indicate race “urban” or gender (pink) o Pervasive assumption: explains things through what you see Representation and reality • Constructs reality • Has material effects • Shapes o Social understanding o Behavior o Policy & law • When a shape or image changes  society changes  beliefs reflect people’s changes in habit • Ex: Title IX, Equal opportunity laws, welfare policy Framing • Narrative and erasure: what was left out of the frame • How heroes and villains are portrayed. • How the cropping of photos reveals only parts producers want to be seen Stereotype: • Difference: insist on absolute differences and boundaries • Classification: categorizing and an evaluation of the group being stereotyped • Essentialization: set of incidental attributes all of which are necessary to its identity and function within a specific entity • Hierarchy: evaluation of group is often, not always, a negative one • Naturalization: emphasize some easily grasped or perceived feature(s) of the group in question and then suggest that these are the cause of the group’s position • Blue eyes vs. brown eyes o Kids were separated by eye color & teacher then says blue > brown  turning into fights and the shunning of the two goups • Jersey Shore  reps Italian-americans as loud, drunk, & fighting • Hot Latina : sensuality  tight clothes The Gaze • Berger: “Ways of Seeing” o Idea that an image invites a particular kind of viewer, a particular kind of gaze, that involves power • Fanon: “The Fact of Blackness” o Skin color is unavoidable, and always frames interaction o Meanings of race are paramount • The person behind the stereotype is hard to be seen • Perceived differences have become so powerful  its hard to see past it • “who is doing the looking?” “for whom is the image produced?” Semiotics • Not “natural” but “arbitrary” –but feels natural • Set by culture through language • Denotation/connotation • Struggle over representation • Polysemy • Contextual Meaning • Encoding/decoding • They can change  each sign is a code  language Denotation/Connotation • Connotation: power to define/maintain meaning • Denotation: the surface or literal meaning encoded to a signifier, the definition most likely to appear Langue/Parole • Langue: language structure, rules, grammar, shared meanings • Parole: an individual utterance, which can shift meaning o Which often does, but also may not, follow the rules  Gender roles, television, e.g.  Murphy Brown: too dominant, aggressive, masculine, lacked good values etc  she was trying to break into the work field where men were the leaders Encoding/Decoding • Encoding o Where TV is produced o Clarifies what goes on in TV o Industry, production, o Where TV encodes messages: creates the messages intended to be interpreted • Decoding o Moment viewers watch the media and interpret o Audience o Consumption o Viewers positions as a “Decode”  1. Dominant- agree  2. Negotiated- get it but have own views  3. Oppositional- disagree Material effects of representation • body image • racism Feminism Femininity • Body builders: feminized in certain ways  make it so body building is not okay for women • Portrayed in advertisements depictions of women Scripts • The stereotyping of offering images of situations or processes, with the implication that we grow familiar with these and often know how to ‘perform’ them in our own lives, often to the exclusion of other ways of being Type vs. Stereotype • Types exist • Stereotype adds valence, judgment Representation and identity • Nation • Group membership • Race/ethnicity • Gender Representation and nationalism • cultural: performing/changing social dynamics • cultural politics= no I won’t wear a skirt, I won’t be a tough guy Orientalism • colonial era • images of natives opposite of settlers, colonials • justified colonialism • traces remain • produced subject positions • produced material consequences • knowledge of “backward”____ • power produced knowledge to justify it- maps and stereotypes • produced identity Subjects vs. Objects • The power to describe/ascribe social position • The power to display • The right to consume • The right to use as accessory • The right to look at • Examples: o Hottentot Venus, One-Drop Rule Objectification • who is doing the looking • for whom is the image produced? • Objectifying people in terms of consumption Key Points • Representations indicate something about the creator, and the viewer, and the relations of power • They manifest and naturalize social relations (including inequality) o A“taken for granted” way to explain how things are • Politics of representation o To change how things are defined, to change their material effects • Power to represent and in what ways o Control of media, practices of media (text, inst, aud) • Visuals, narrative, discourse shape the story o This has material effects—real outcomes in life outside the media, such as policy, law, behavior Discourse & Ideology Base & Superstructure • Marx o Capitalism and profit lead to class formation  Rich have access to representation  Poor must be persuaded to work o Base-economy , superstructure-culture o There has to be social inequality in order to have capitalism o False consciousness: recognizing that laborers aren’t going to make their worth  but understanding that • Clear relationship between the ways the basic needs of a social order are met (through factory production in industrial capitalist orders) and its superstructure o For ex:  ‘secondary’less basic institutions, such as organized religions and cultural life • base: who owns it is argued to determine, not just influence, cultural and political activities False Consciousness • “the ideas of the ruling class are, in every age, the ruling ideas” ~ Marx • rich able to make exploited believe that “existing relations of exploitation and oppression are natural, inevitable, and therefore unchangeable” • false consciousness helps keep things as they are, in favor of those in power • Frankfurt School: those who control media control ruling ideas; people taught to consume mindlessly Hegemony • Negotiated • Concessions are made • Challenges are coopted • Eg. Gay marriage, punk culture • Still rule through persuasion, but not on brute force • Cooptation: takes political rebellions  make it softer o Manipulate powers to make rebellions seem as a trend • Key way of thinking how dominant value systems change Consent • Gramsci: more dynamic, negotiated model of power  belief system help people internalize- HEGEMONY • Consent is negotiated, struggle for control o You want people to opt into a system where you act in line o Whose to dictate types of PDA?  people say things Common Sense • Ideology established “common sense” o Taken for granted, unquestioned norms and assumptions in everyday life o These help maintain social rules  Women’s work in the home, or who fetches things consent for war abroad  Holding hands in public • Violations of common sense: G.I. Jane Repressive StateApparatus • Althusser: focused on how people were taught to behave • Police,Army, Prison • Force • Physical force determines power Ideological StateApparatus • School, Family Religion • Persuade • The idea that social cues can determine power: “good catholic girls don’t have sex before marriage”  way to control sex lives Discourse • Shared belief system of knowledge production (beyond, but including language) o Acts, gestures, policy documents, institutional practices • Shapes rules, behaviors, people • Historically situated in particular places and times o Definitions of mental illness  Melancholia or depression? Internal or external cause? Lack of will? Or chemical imbalance?  Madness: tool touched by God or illness person? • Foucault o Power operates through discourse o Surveillance  We internalize ideas o Discipline (of the body), disciplines of knowledge o Subject positions • Gender discourse: women cook, clean, & take care of household o In the 50s did so in order to get women out of the work force after the war  also brought in the idea of the kitchen culture Power as productive, circulating-Foucault • Power is not top-down or an outside force, but circulates in society • Power is productive, not repressive o It produces meaning, documents, practices, behaviors, pleasure, desire, all kinds of feelings, actions, material things • Institutions, individuals, physical spaces, all shaped, produced by power/knowledge • Foucault Power/knowledge • Not only is knowledge always implicated in power (i.e. no neutral knowledge) • Power implicated in how knowledge is used • Power makes knowledge “true” • Ex: Murphy Brown, single mother o Concerns about delinquency, lack of father figure o Single mothers punished (discrimination, funding) Discursive formation** • Discourse then becomes all the related ways in which a given set of ideas and meanings is constructed, subjects positioned • Discursive formation • Regime of truth • Cannot ask for certain things  restrictions on what to do Regime of truth Subject position • Discourse produces subject positions • Each subject position has rules, subjects punished for breaking them, encouraged to behave in line with them o Discourse rules in and rules out behavior o Eg: professor student • Discourse makes sense from those positions • Power shapes subjects, no one is outside power, subject is not source of power o Agency? Limits of possibility Week 10: Gender Gender-cultural meanings attributed to biological differences – men and women are acculturated into their gender roles – masculinity and femininity a set of social expectations Femininity-What a culture expects of its women Feminism- Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women. feminism seeks to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Anti-feminism-Characterized by ideas or behavior reflecting a disbelief in the economic, political, and social equality of the sexes. Fragmented subjectivity-inhabit multiple personas, some in conflict, identify with contradiction itself Feminine Mystique-False belief system that women find identity and meaning in their lives through their husbands and children Biology is destiny- Biology is destiny [b/c have children, only thing you do] • All women have built in maternal instinct and women are nurturing, passive, and inherently domestic • Maternal instinct- that women are naturally nurturing, passive, and inherently domestic Stereotypes of women over time (50s, 60s, 70s, 80s, 90s) 50s/60s/- Biology is destiny, All women have built-in maternal instinct, Women are nurturing, passive, and inherently domestic 70s- Beautiful and slim,Under 35, Deferential to men, Weak and passive, Not very smart, Not decision makers 80s- rise of embedded feminism 90s- spice girls, allie mcbeal, girlpower Virgin/whore binary- women seen as virgins or whores no in between Symbolic annihilation- The systematic underrepresentation of a particular group or groups and/or media representations that favor stereotypes and omit realistic portrayals. Women worked as secretaries and teachers old products like cars and shaving cream b/c seen as sex objects The gaze- women are “to be looked at” Passive vs. active- men act, women appear Women’s bodies in advertising (“cut up” visually)- Women’s bodies “cut up” dehumanizes women, don’t see their face, not objects! • Surveillance of women’s bodies- Body image crucial: Thou shalt not be fat… • - Women must put themselves under surveillance • - 75% of women think they’re too fat • - since 1979, Miss America contestants so thin, at least 15% below recommend body weight • - Average height and weight ofAmerican weight: 5’4 and 142 lbs • - Average height and weight of fashion models: 5’9 110 lbs • - Barbie’s measurements were Barbie real, 36-18-33 • - 85% of body doubles have breast implants • - The number of women having breast enlargement surgery has increased 54% since 2000 Girliness- Embedded feminism (and characteristics of)- feminist gains, attitudes, and achievements are woven into our cultural fabric Enlightened sexism (and characteristics of)- resurrects sexist stereotypes of girls and women. Insists that it’s ok because “equality has been achieved” ironically sexist New Girliness- Both celebrates and mocks girliness Post-feminism (and irony- an ideology that insists that feminism’s goals have been achieved, thus feminism is irrelevant, outdated, a spent force.And sexist images of women are OK Image vs. reality of representation of women in the media- Women segregated into low paying, jobs; in 2007, nearly half confined to 20 occupational categories, median income just over $27,000 In 2007, the median income for women was just over $32,000 a year, more than 31 percent less than their male counterparts Mixed messages- Women get mixed messages from the media about power, sexuality, and deference to men; mixed messages in the media: war between femininity, feminism, anti-feminism What defines success for women? Masculinity- What a culture expects of its men Types of masculinity Hegemonic masculinity (list of characteristics)- Hypermasculinity – ideal based on toughness relationship to toughness, technology, and aggression • - War movies – connection between males and violence • - Male warriors capable of taking on overwhelming odds and they can take pains – strong, resilliant, cope with overwhelming odds • - War movies – men initiated into masculinity – shave heads, submit to harsh orders, physical ideals, tests of endurance ­ Sexual prowess and power over women o What male should be o - Arnold o - Physique [large muscles, huge, capable of taking over situations] o - Relation to technology [weapons, swords, guns, computer – CIA technology] o - Incredible tolerance for pain o - Sense of humor o - Sexual power/prowess o - Intense emotional control ­ Representation of men over time (by decade)- 80s- sensitive, new-age guys 90s- gay men on TV, visibility; more accepted, but stereotyped, rise of metrosexual Hypermasculinity- Extreme version of hegemonic • - Extreme muscle, extreme no pain • - Metrosexual • - Lads • - snag • What defines success for men? • - occupy high status positions • - initiate action • - rational rather than emotional • - financially successful - strong Binary opposition of men vs. women- Real men are the opposite of women, of feminine attributes, of gays, Feminine traits seen as emasculating, reducing men, Compensation Metrosexual- urban man who cares about his appearance, fashion, decorating, but isn’t necessarily gay Lad masculinity- Making fun of hegemonic masculinity Other types, contradictions- male music figures are contradictory- KISS, Justin Beiber, emo boys, hipsters, skateboarders- reject hegemonic masculinity, value freedom and independence, do not value pain, do not value conformity Week 11: Race, Gender, Class and Sexuality Race- Race is constructed meaning layered on top of inherited differences in appearance  not real in nature! Racism- Outward differences thought to be easily categorized into races  Racial categories thought to explain “essential” differences  Racial inferiority linked to power racism: the idea that these outward differences indicate inner differences 1. people can be objectively divided into races 2. race explains differences in behavior or character (far more so than class, religion, education...) 3. some races are inferior to others and ‘innately’prone to certain kinds of behavior Stereotypes- a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing Minstrelsy- Minstrel shows… form of entertainment that invented stereotype then made fun of it [1830s, NE, made blacks seem slow] • White men with black paint on their faces Jim Crow- Character in minstrel show; stood for dumb, plantation bred bumpkin- rough, course, stupid Jim Dandy- respectable urban black man • Pretender, didn’t deserve fancy clothes – crooked, vein • Unable to resist gambling • Didn’t know his place Stage Negro- white inventions (Jim Crowe/Dandy) – delimited the terms of black identity within culture characteristics: • - Child like • - Duped into most idiotic of schemes • - Vulgar stories • - Lazy • - Slow moving • - Terrified of ghosts • - Loved dancing • - Insatiable appetite for food and sex [Nathan hudgens] • - Created distance between whiteman’s normative self Role of music- African Americans producing music that whites embrace, that helps constitute identities of young whites  Jazz, rock’n’roll, R&B, later, hip hop  Scott Joplin, ragtime  Bessie Smith, blues  Louis Armstrong, " Duke Ellington, jazz  “Race music” big business Uses of stereotypes- The Mammy The Jezebel The Black Buck Racial formation- is the process of assigning meaning to racial difference and constructing racial categories Racial project- Aracial project is a mode of explaining social differences using racial ideas to justify unequal (along racial lines) access to resources (Omi & Winant). Struggle for blackness- Hegemony  Struggle for blackness  Or other struggle over how to define a minority, who gets to define a minority Dimensions on which stereotypes operate: °Civilization—barbarism °Intelligence—stupidity/slowness °Rationality—irrationality °Inferior/backward—upstart °Selfcontrolled/calm—loud/emotional °Sexuality: Oversexed—undersexed vs. normal °Color symbolism: purity/whiteness – dirt/pollution Whiteness (and its characteristics)- “white” also is a racial category  But not “marked” as such, goes unnoticed  standard or contrast against which other races are measured – the “normal” or “everyone”  Elements of whiteness:  Self-control, disciplined, ambitious, rational, intelligent Role of media Representation over time Racial visibility Being post-racial? Representations of various U.S. minority groups (Blacks,Asians, Latinos, Native Americans) Chinese Yellow (Asians in total) Jackie Chan – asexual but athletic Asian American men – athletic Women – subservient/docile OR mean NOW – model minority NativeAmericans • - Villanous obstacle to westward expansion • - Distinctive tribal cultures reduced to generic “indians” • - Barbaric, uncivilized Indians • - loyal sidekick • - uncorrupted by civilization, without bounds of civilization, humans essentially good • - noble savage Mexican/Latinos • - lazy, corrupt, sadistic, dirty • - unskilled • - stealing American jobs [though JobsAmericans don’t necessarily want to do] • - Image of exotic latin lover, knows women • - Latin Women: impoverished, too many children, sensual, over- sexual spitfire Racial comity- Entman and Rojecki emphasize “racial comity” as normative ideal— civility, seeing common Interests  Racial attitudes can be tipped towards comity or hostility by the media Racial hostility- ^^ Intersectionality- The idea that discourses of race, gender and class intersect or interrelate in their influence, in how they shape people’s positions and social outcomes  Not additive, but more complex interrelated influence  Ex. Mammy stereotype  Ex.Angry black man stereotype,  Ex. Dandy stereotype  Ex. Dragon Lady  Ex. Geisha Representation and containment- Ex. “barbaric” (or noble/ childlike) NativeAmerican stereotype justifies colonialism Ex. “mammy” stereotype justifies domestic slavery Ex. “stage Negro” seen as slow, stupid, object of humor, opposite of work ethic Media representations of class over time Goldbergs (1929-46, radio; 1949-56, TV)  All in the Family (1971-1983)  Roseanne & Married with Children (1988-97)  My Name is Earl (2005-2009)  Working Class" (canceled)  Today, CMT Markers of class membership- Taste (clothing, shoes)  Dress (uniforms, service)  Social groups  Institutions (school)  Zip code  “old” money Invisibility vs. stereotype in representation- More shows deal with “middle class” (sitcom form) or white collar  Blue collar/working class severely underrepresented  When represented, stereotyped  upward mobility,American dream still the ideal Sexuality- capacity for sexual feelings; sexual orientation or preference Queerness- homosexual How have LGBT been represented in the media? How has this changed over time?- Safe and sanitized  No sex or affection (Modern Family)  Narrow scope of operation  E.g. Design/aesthetics  Secondary role (Queer Eye)  Paired with straights (Will & Grace)  Changing representation today Why do representations change? Changing society, yes  But also capitalism, new markets  Niche markets, " audience segmentation  BET  LOGO  Lifetime/Oxygen  Telemundo/Univision Citizenship (and its dimensions) Social, cultural, political, legal  Full membership in a nation  Access to rights  Equal treatment  Think about how intersecting discourses around race, gender, class, sexuality, disability, age" all shape how people are treated as citizens, or not.  Who is accepted without question? Who is normal? Who is deviant? Who is seen as suspicious, dangerous? Week 12: Music Music before media/ pre-recording technology, 1900- music availability mostly through live performance -concert halls -churches -traveling groups people bought sheet music, played instruments Analog vs. Digital Analog Records: turntable spins, needle is played in records groove, needle rides in groove and transmits vibrations to amplifier, vibrations are convertible for speakers Tape: magnetic particles encode sound waves Digital -1940s:magnetic tape-allows sound editing, mixing -1931/58:stereo sounds -1960s:cassette form=portable home dubbing: impact on sales -1970s: digital recording -1983: compact discs hit market -1992: mp3 **major copyright issues arrive pop music- appeals to masses -preceded recording technology -sheet music, performances -range of styles- ex. Tin PanAlley -when recording arrives, it increases sales of sheet music -space for black music -often tied to social change: politics: sexual norms and race: gender norms Rock and roll revolution (+race) 1950s- m -merges a wide variety of sounds -black influences: r and b, gospel, screeching guitar -white influences: country, folk, pop vocal -seen as breaking rules, forming new rules -R+B music is segregated into a “rav” and “pap” charts -youth culture and rebellion -racial integration, but also exploitation -in 1950s music is segregated- white musicians cover black musicians songs resistence: little Richard racism: the marvelette By the 1960s, black and white routinely recorded/performed each other’s songs- radio increasingly desegregated Rock and Roll and social/cultural changes- Rock and roll disturbed binaries of: High and low culture: Chuck Berry “Roll Over Beethoven” Gender/Sexuality: Little Richard “Long Tail Sally” Country and City: rockabilly, R and B into rock North and South: Elvis Sacred and secular: then, Jerry Lee Lewis now, Christian Rock Appropriation- Payola Scandals- paying djs to play songs, considered bribery but law arrives only with Federal CommunicationsAct, Leading DJ’s careers affected British Invasion- musical mixing and flow- rock can sell, old styles repackaged Beatles “good boys” 1964 “She Loves You” on the Ed Sullivan Show Rolling Stones: bad boys- “satisfaction” Motor City Soul- Motown (label)- soul music mixes gospel and blues with emotion and lyrics james brown, Otis redding, Aretha franklin, contrasted sharply with loud, fast instrumentals of rock Draws young white audiences back to black music Stars of Motown label: Marvin Gaye, Jackson 5, Supremes Punk (1970s)- record business has been commercialized, punk challenges norms: returns to basics -simple chord structures -catchy melodies -socially challenging lyrics -sex pistols “Anarchy in the UK” -Grunge/Alternative Rock follow Folk (1960s)- protest music- Dylan, Joan Baex, Pete Seeger, Woody Guthrie, YoLa Tengo Civil rights, women’s rights, antiwar movement, environmental movement Psychedelic (1970s)- about rule breaking, free speech and social experimentation- Janis Joplin, Doors, Jimi Hendrix -also progressive rock: King Crimson, Rush, into 80s Disco…(1970s) Glam Rock, Hair Bands (1980s)- glam metal, hair bands, but also nostalgia -more commercialized stadium rock -hard rock/ heavy metal style, power ballads -masculinity -Twisted sister, Bon Jovi, Motley Crue, Whitesnake Grunge, Alternative (1990s)- follows in spirit of punk -anti-commercial -anti-fashion-plaid, grunge look -speaks to alienated experience -Nirvana Hip Hop- return of black artists (after 70s) -explicitly political-speaks to marginalized black experiences -less smoothed out than soul, but draws on blues, r+b, soul, rock and roll -democratic- anyone who can scratch or rap -Grandmaster Flash, Run DMC, Public Enemy -today, many genres Music business, ownership + profit sharing- Key areas: making, selling, dividing profits Ownership- 86-1% of market share is divided among 4 labels- Sony, Universal, EMI, Warner Music Group -control most of industries productions and distribution -enormous influence over what types of music gain worldwide distribution and popular acceptance -Changes w/ technology- copyright and royalties Copyright- balance b/t right to free speech the free circulation of ideas and creative work for a stronger democracy and idea that people should be able to profit from their ideas -originally, short-term copyrights, then idea goes into public domain -w/media, sonny bono act- extends copyright Royalties- sales -retail -digital performance mechanical alternative/redistribution -indie labels -online- especially established acts skip the label after contract ends Music is a tool of social control- Music as a site of resistance/revolution- Mass culture- Culture industries- Electric Guitar (Electrification) development- 1890- patent filed by George Breed 1931- ro-pat-in releases the frying pan 1936- Gibson releases ES-150 1941- Les Pauls build “the log” 1950- Leo Fender releases Broadcaster, later renoned Telecaster 1952- Gibson releases the LesPaul 1954-Fender- releases the Stratocaster Electric Guitar continued Key points- -development of electric guitar dependent upon technical knowledge -related to radio- hobbyists/tinkerers -amateurs lead the industry in innovations rather than established manufacturers -Electrification turns a guitar from a musical instrument into a powerful machine -model names relate electric guitar to other prestigious technologies Rock and Masculinity- from “rock and sexuality” by Simon Fritht andAngella McRobbie (1978)-“in terms of control + production rock is an example form” - industry is male run - successful women performers are primarily singers -men construct suitable female images market masculine styles Rock + Masculinity continued- Cock rock- “music making in which performance is an explicit, crude, and often aggressive expression of male sexuality Performers- aggressive, dominating, boastful, remind audience of powers and control -music is loud, insistent, rhythms, vocals include screams + shouts Teenybopper- image based on self-pity vulnerability and need -songs about loneliness, frustration -music is softer -looking for soulmate rather than sexual partner -teenyboper fan should feel her idol is addressing himself fully to her (JBiebs) her experience should be his partner Guitars and “technophallus”- term from Steve Walksman -guitar becomes technical extension of body (loaded male) “phallus” denotes penis, but connotes power -marks female players as gender transgressive Barriers to female electric guitarists- 1) lack of female role models- think of jimi Hendrix, eric Clapton, bb king, (not women) when you think of electric guitarists 2) traditional constructions of gender- boys socialized to identify w/ rockstars; girls socialized to want to date a rockstar 3) binary opposition of male/female- producer/consumer; aggressive/peaceful; active/passive; dirty/clean; loud/quiet *amateur due to lack of commitment 4) masculinization of technology- radio legitimized music appreciations for men, post-WWII men used audio hobbies/technologies to reclaim specifically masculine domestic space 5) lack of access to educational encouragement- until relatively recently no formal training in rock, spaces, such as music stores, constructed to exclude women Symbolic annihilation of female rock musicians- 1) treated as ahistorical- multiple moments characterized by women in rock, reinforces that they are women first, musicians 2 nd 2) myth of rebellion- essentializing 3) myth of lineage- “whereas the prototypes and precursors of male rock rebellion are easy to locate, the ancestors for female rock rebellion are rather more elusive” (Reynolds and Press) 4) fiction of femininity- allows authenticity of woman’s performance to be called into question Rock, women, and gender transgression- “Rock against romance” -female fans are either maniacs or groupies -rock “creates a space to imagine alternative visions of gender” offers an escape from the romance narrative and the feminine mystique Gender transgression- female fans identify “w/ a sense of power that was only available to boys”- male musicians who played with gender show how gender is a construct and widens meanings of masculinity and femininity -existence of female rock artists made possible by feminism Riot Grrrl- not just music, but a feminist movement -values polysemic femininity -co-opted by the mainstream and turned into” angry women rock” -post feminist- illusion of feminist independence while clinging to traditional feminine ideals, feminism is no longer necessary -increases visibility of female musicians Girls Rock Camp- 1 monumental rock ‘n’roll camp for girls founded in 2000 -girls rock camp alliance founded in 2007- now a global movement with over 40 affiliates -Mission-“ the girls rock camp alliance is an intl. coalition of organizations whose shared mission is to empower girls/women using tools of music education to foster self- esteem and confidence” Barriers: 1)lack of female role models 2)traditional construction of gender 3)masculization of technology 4)lack of access to educational encouragement Resistance 1)offers girls female instructors and mentors 2)emphasize self-expression, polysemic femininity
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