Comm Test 2 Notes.docx

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Communication Studies
Course Code
COMM 102
Scott Campbell

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Comm 102 Exam 2 Lecture 6: History of Media Effects 2/5/14 1920s-30s (powerful media effects) Magic bullet/hypodermic-needle model (media effects are intermediate, direct, uniform, and unlimited) Historical cases and studies: -Wartime propaganda in WWI -The Committee on Public Information -Movies, public speakers, articles, and posters Payne Fund studies -In the 1920s, public concern about harmful effects of motion pictures on children prompted the Payne Fund Studies -From 1929-1932, 13 studies found that movies had a significant impact on various phenomena -attitudes towards racial/ethnic groups, health, moral standards, emotions, mmmmmdelinquent behaviors -A content analysis by Edgar Dale -75% of all the films dealt with three thematic categories -crime, love, and sex -A study by Herbert Blumer and Philip Hauser -gathered movie experiences from ex-convicts on parole and delinquent youth -motion pictures played a direct role in shaping delinquent and criminal careers of substantial segments of those studied -An experiment study by Samuel Renshaw, Vernon L. Miller, and Dorothy P. Marquis -movie viewing and a potential dangers to children’s health -certain films resulted in sleep disturbance -how much the subjects tossed and turned during sleep -detrimental to normal health and growth Invasion from Mars! CBS “Mercury Theatre on the Air” (October 30, 1938, 8-9 pm) -radio adaptation of the War of the Worlds written by HG Wells -The US invaded by monstrous creatures from Mars -Dramatization in a newscast style Size -Of the 6-7 million listeners, about 28% thought that it was news, and 1 million nnnnnnnwere frightened -some estimates put the size of listeners at 12 million, including children Effects -Fleeing homes and packing the roads -Attempted suicide -Prayer gatherings -Wrapping heads in wet towels as protection from Martian poison gas Research on the Invasion from Mars by Princeton University -Why such impact? -High confidence in the medium -Realistic -Breaking news format, expert interviews, and use of real places -tuning in late -Who was more likely to be affected? -People with less critical ability, less confidence, and less emotional nnnnnnnnnnnnnnsecurity -People with strong religious beliefs 1940s-60s (limited media effects) Carl Hovland (1942-45) -Turning millions of young civilians into effective teas of military personnel -“Why We Fight” series -Found that US Army films did not affect soldiers’ motivations Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet (1948) -A study of the 1940 presidential election found that the impact of media exposure was negligible -“The People’s Choice (1948)” The People’s Choice -The 1940 election between Roosevelt and Wilkie -“How and why people decided to vote as they did?” -Erie county, OH -interviewed selected residents every month (May to November) -Three types of media effects -Reinforcement (about 50%) -Activation (14%) -the indifferent electoral participation -Conversion (about 8%) -Selective attention -Significance of interpersonal communication Joseph Klapper (1960) -conducted an extensive review of effects studies -concluded that the effects of mass communication were limited 1970s (moderate to powerful effects) Moderate Effects -more sophisticated theorizing -cognitive, conditional, and indirect -major effects theories -Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien (1970): Knowledge gap hypothesis -The Surgeon General’s reports on televised violence and aggressive behaviors nnnnnnnn(1971) -The 1972 Report to the Surgeon General found that a causal relationship nnnmmmmmmexists between TV violence and aggression, but “any such causal relation mmmmmmmmoperates only on some children (who are predisposed to act mmmmmmmmaggressively)” and “operates only in some environmental contexts.” -Dependency theory (Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur. 1976) states the........ -McCombs and Shaw (1972): Agenda-setting hypothesis -Noelle-Neumann (1973): Spiral of Silence -Gerbner (1970s): Cultivation -Uses and gratifications (1970s) 1980s-present (powerful effects) -1983 NIMH Report on TV and Behavior concluded that TV violence is linked to societal violence. -“In magnitude, TV violence is as strongly correlated with aggressive behavior as any other behavioral variable that has been measured.” -Viewing a 30 minute TV program has a significant effect on values (Ball- Rokeach et al. 1984) -Joint Statement (2001) on media violence -“The conclusion of the public health community, based on over 30 years of research, is that viewing entertainment violence can lead to increases in aggressive attitudes, values and behavior, particularly in children.” Revisionist perspectives Re-interpreting early studies -studies that indicate limited and powerful effects can be identified in every period -inclusion of past studies that do not fit the standard scenario Re-reading the established history -there was interest in indirect and conditional effects in powerful effects studies (The Payne Fund studies). -partial reading/interpretation of limited effects studies was pointed out The People’s Choice -Beyond conversation -Big impact of small effects -Interpersonal effects overestimated -the two-step flow of communication -mediaopinion leaders mass audiences Effects of WWII films -significant impact on knowledge about foreign affairs -delayed effects Re-reading the final verdict (Klapper) -possibility of strong media effects recognized -five generalizations (p. 48)**important 1. Mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions among and through a nexus of mediating facets and influences. 2. These mediating factors are such that they typically render mass communication a contributory agent, but not the sole cause, in a process of reinforcing the existing conditions. Regardless of the condition in question, be in the vote intentions of audience members, their tendency toward or away from delinquent behavior, or their general orientation toward life and its problems— and regardless of whether the effect in question be social or individual, the media are more likely to reinforce than change. 3. On such occasions as mass communication does not function in the service of change, one of two conditions is likely to exist. Either: a. The mediating factors will be found to be inoperative and the effect of the media will be found to be direct, or b. The mediating factors, which normally favor reinforcement, will be found to be impelling toward change. 4. There are certain residual situations in which mass communication seems to produce direct effects, or directly and of itself to serve certain psychophysical functions. 5. The efficacy of mass communication, either as a contributory agent or as an agent of direct effect, is affected by various aspects of the media and communications themselves or of the communication situation, including, for example, aspects of textual organization, the nature of the source and medium, the existing climate of public opinion, and the like. 2/6/14 Lecture 7: Social Cognitive Theory Social (Observational) Learning Theory: learning a new behavior involves observing and imitating that behavior being performed by another person -the model could be a real person (e.g., family member, peer), a filmed person, or even a fictitious character (e.g., Barney) -Individuals are more likely to adopt a model behavior if: -the model is similar to the observer -the model has admired status -the model is rewarded -the behavior has functional value -In 1941, Miller and Dollard proposed a theory of social learning and imitation. -However, their theory could not explain the creation of novel responses or the processes of delayed and non-reinforced imitations -In 1963, Bandura and Walters described the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement in Social Learning and Personality Development -In 1977, Bandura’s book Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change identified that a key element was missing from social learning theories: self-beliefs -In 1986, Bandura published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory -He assigned cognition a central role in human behavior.  social cognitive theory -In 1986, Bandura published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory -He assigned cognition a central role in human behavior -People are -not just reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental events or inner forces -but, self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating Triadic Reciprocal Causation Environmental Factors  Behavior Personal Factors (Biological/Inner Forces/Drive) Behavior BehaviorEnvironmental Factors BehaviorPersonal Factors (Cognitive) Personal Factors  Environmental Factors Distinct Cognitive Traits Symbolizing Capacity -symbols, such as words and letters, are utilized to represent specific objects, thoughts, or ideas -symbols are the vehicle of thought -allows people to store, process, and transform experiences for mental processes Self-Reflective Capacity -the process of thought verification -people perform a self-check to make sure his or her thinking is correct -through self-reflection, people make sense of their experiences, explore their own cognitions and self-beliefs, and alter their thinking accordingly Self-Regulatory Capacity -adopted standard and perceived performance -people evaluate their own behavior and respond accordingly -the capacity provides the potential to self-directed changes in behavior -a dual control process -discrepancy reductions -discrepancy production Vicarious Capacity -people learn by observing the behavior of others without directly experiencing it -this vicarious learning explains how people learn a novel behavior without undergoing the trial and error process of performing it  observational learning or modeling -ability to learn without direct experience -emphasizes potential contributions of mass media messages -positive- learn beneficial things -negative- learn antisocial behaviors -observational learning does not merely refer to a short-term process based on a simple observation and imitation -it concerns long-term effects -most commonly invoked theory to explain television’s effects on learning behaviors Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies Observational Learning/Modeling/Social Learning -a cognitive approach that emphasizes the importance of mental activity as a precursor to action -four component process: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation Attention -individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and attend to the significant features of the modeled behavior -attention depends on: -message characteristics (salience and attractiveness) -perceived functional value of the action -one’s goals and interests -one’s cognitive skills Retention -modeled behavior must be remembered or retained in order to be used again -retention involves -cognitive rehearsal -elaboration (comparing the action to already existing thoughts relevant to the action) -filing the behavior into long-term memory Motor Reproduction (Production) -learning a behavior does not lead automatically to replicating it -individuals must have physical abilities and skills to replicate the action -self-efficacy (belief that one can enact the behavior before the attempt) -modification could occur during the production process Motivation -socially learned behaviors may not be enacted unless one is motivated (acquisition vs performance) -motivational rewards or punishments -Direct (direct result of own action) -Self-produced (self-satisfaction and self-worth) -Vicarious (observation of other’s behavior and subsequent outcomes) Inhibition or Disinhibition? When observing a behavior that conflicts with one’s established pattern of behavior -Inhibitory effects- it may inhibit or restrain a person from acting in a previously learned, reprehensive, anti-social, behavior -Disinhibitive effects- it may lift previously learned internal restraints on certain behaviors Disinhibitory devices (forms of self-exoneration) Moral Justification -people believe that their otherwise deplorable actions are justifiable because they serve a “higher” or “moral” purpose (ex- “I stole to provide food for my family.” Or “I lied to protect my friend.”) Advantageous Comparison- -by comparing own deplorable acts with even more serious behaviors of others, people make their own acts look trivial by comparison (contrast principle) -feeling that it was okay because others were doing things at least as bad as you (ex- “Sure I did that, but look what at what he did.”) Euphemistic Labeling -by calling an otherwise reprehensible act something other than what it really is, one can engage in an act without self-contempt, and the act is made benign and acceptable -using a milt d to hide the actual harmfulness of deplorable acts (ex- I sort of borrowed it.. instead of I stole it.) Displacement of Responsibility -some people can readily depart from their moral principles if they feel that a recognized authority sanctions their behavior and takes responsibility for it (I did it because I was ordered to.) Diffusion of Responsibility -When deplorable acts are performed in a group, individuals feel less personally responsible. -Where everyone is responsible, no single individual feels responsible. (I just went along with the crowd. I couldn’t be the only one saying so. I thought someone else would help her; there were people all around.) Distortion of the Consequences -After people engage in deplorable acts, they can ease their conscience by ignoring or distorting the harm caused by their conduct. (I only shoplift from big chain stores; they never miss it. Hey, what I did was not that bad. I just let the bombs go and they disappeared in the clouds.” Dehumanization -Victims are looked upon as subhuman and thus can be treated inhumanly. (Why not take their land?---they are nothing but savages without souls.” -Victims are forced to behave like beasts, proving that they are subhuman. Attribution of Blame -Blaming the victims or the situation -(If you hadn’t been such a jerk, I wouldn’t have hit you) -(The poor cause their own problems.) Mass Media and Social Learning -Modeled behaviors -Viewing disinhibitory devices working -Cultivating viewers’ perception and beliefs about the world (social construction of reality) -Prosocial learning -Diffusion -Effects of viewing televised or filmed violence Social Prompting- the actions of others can serve as social prompts for previously learned behavior -that observers can (did) perform but have not done so (recently) -because of insufficient inducements -pro-social campaigns and brand advertising (benefit statements) Effects of Viewing Televised or Film Violence -results from vicarious capacity -copy cat crimes 2/6/14 Discussion: Priming Priming Memory- a network consisting of nodes (concepts) and links (associations) -when one concept is activated, the activation spreads to related concepts, making them more accessible in memory How exactly does priming work? -Innumerable media effects scholars agree priming is a foundational concept, but there’s not any one “right” way to understand priming. There are various models and theories (meaning: conceptualizations) of how it works. Two Major Types of Priming Models Network Models- conceptualize the fairly immediate activation and use of (cognitive) networks -association with media violence priming research -Cognitive Neoassociation -memory is a network -watching media activates parts of the network -past experiences are remembered and then associated with the new information -General Affective Aggression model (GAM) -arousal is increased when exposure to mediated violence primes hostility/anger -primary or automatic appraisal is made in the mind of the viewer -secondary appraisal is made where viewer rethinks action -physiological responses (brain) Mental Models- dynamic mental representation of a situation, event, or object; they can do the following: 1) help us process, organize, and comprehend incoming information 2) make social judgments 3) formulate predictions and inferences 4) generate descriptions and explanation of how a system operates -conceptualize human sense-making practices -exist for longer periods of time than network models -mental models (situational models) -schemas -sense-making processes (mind) Other Models: Situational Model Purpose: to represent a story or event viewed through mass media A type of mental model Schema A representation of knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus including attributes and relations between them (more abstract, less contextualized, and less mutable) Example- Modern Family (more general, abstractspecific) schemas- family dynamics, conflict love, social traditions mental models- Modern Family situational models- specific episode of Modern Family that illustrates the schemas above Variables the Enhance Priming Effects (Intervening Variables) perceived meaning- viewer interprets the meaning of violent actions in a particular way perceived justifiability- viewer believes the violent behavior is justified for some reason character identification- viewer identifies with the character committing the act perceived reality- viewer believes they are seeing reality as opposed to fiction memories of prior experiences- viewer sees media and something triggers a memory from the viewer’s past Chapter 10- Persuasion 2/12/14 -Effects of persuasive messages are intended -Research examines the process of attitude formation and change and the modification of behavior based on attitude change -Models to explain process of persuasion -Elaboration Likelihood Model- ELM -Theory of Reasoned Action- TRA -Theory of Planned Behavior- TPB Persuasion Research History 1920-30s- powerful effects of radio propaganda during WWI 1929- radio news of Wall Street crash brought nationwide panic 1938- War of the World broadcast caused hysteria -Adolph Hitler’s rise to power illustrated frightening potential for mass persuasion through media communication -Carl Hovland, WWII 3 Important steps in successful persuasion: (seeds of persuasion theories) 1. listeners must pay attention to message 2. listeners must comprehend the message 3. listeners must accept the message 5 variables affect persuasive power: -credibility of message source -type of message appeal -order of arguments presented -audience identification with certain groups -personality of audience -Paul Lazarsfeld- 1940s-1950s -media messages reinforced exisiting attitudes -two-step flow -media messages influenced certain opinion leaders in a community -these opinion leaders had influence to change others’ attitudes -indirect effects situation Attitudes, Emotions, Behavior, and Persuasion Attitude- predisposition to evaluate others favorably or unfavorably -the all-important mediator standing between acquisition of new persuasive information and subsequent behavior change Theory of cognitive dissonance- inconsistencies between attitude and action cause anxiety that must be resolved Persuasion Models- McGuire’s Matrix Model -Inputs (independent variables)- variables under control of persuader; source, message, recipient, channel, contact -Outputs (dependent variables)- variables under control of audience members; information exposure, attention, interest, comprehension, yielding/changing attitude Other Persuasion Models Cognitive Response Theory Yielding depends on cognitive response to message (what the audience thinks about the message) Self-validation Theory Persuasion depends on audience member’s confidence in his/her thoughts in response to message -favorable thoughts about message increase with message validity, decrease with message doubt -unfavorable thoughts about message decrease with message validity, increase with message doubt Persuasion Models- ELM -Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)- Petty and Cacioppo -persuasion depends on a person’s likelihood to pay attention to and think very carefully about a message -as likelihood of mental elaboration increases, the central route to persuasion is more dominant. As likelihood of mental elaboration decreases, the peripheral route in more dominant -Central Route to persuasion -requires cognitive effort -attention and careful analysis used to judge message merit -more successful in long-term attitude change -Peripheral route to persuasion -occurs in ways that do not involve cognitive effort -short-term success, but cues may weaken over time -Motivating variables -personal relevance of information- use of “you” in message -ask a question of audience to encourage thinking -frame message in line with audience values or self-perceptions -Peripheral cue variables -likeability or attractiveness of message source -credibility of source- use of experts -number of arguments contained in message -length of arguments -Bandwagon effect- number of others agreeable to message (everybody’s doing it) -Variables in persuasion process -source variables- attractiveness, credibility -message variables- informational items in message -recipient variables- mood Social Judgment Theory -People make judgments about differing views helf regarding an issue -other possible viewpoints are deemed acceptable, not acceptable, or neutral -latitude of acceptability influenced by degree that personal identity is defined by viewpoint on issue -strong connection between beliefs and concept of self-identity increases likelihood of rejection of other beliefs Models that Link Attitude and Actions Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)- people decide how to behave based on 2 criteria -person’s attitude toward the behavior itself -perceptions about other’s views of behavior Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)- included in revised TRA -behavior is also based on the person’s perceived control over te behavior— it is easy or difficult Protection Motivation Theory (PMT)- what motivates people to engage in protective behaviors Threat appraisal- how serious is threat and likely is it to affect you Coping appraisal- how effective is protection and are you capable of performing protective behavior Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change- behavior change is a process that occurs in distinct stages -precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance Automatic Activation- behavior follows attitude automatically without reasoning or reflection Recent Research -types of motives that produce attitude change or resistance -gender differences and emotions—some researchers argue that men are more persuasive and women are more persuadable -link between attitudes and persuasion -automatic attitude availability- even long-held attitudes are subject to change Lecture 8: Persuasion 2/12/14 Persuasion Research -Examines the process of attitude formation and change in audience members and the modification of behavior upon attitude change -Intended effects -Persuasion is at the heart of understanding many media effects -political persuasion -product advertising -pro-social marketing Why Attitude? Attitudes- people’s general predispositions to evaluate other people, objects, and issues favorably or unfavorably and likes/dislikes -an important assumption in persuasion research -Persuasive messageattitudebehavior -A person’s attitude is an important mediating variable (i.e., mediator) between exposure to new information and behavioral change Theoretical Approaches to Persuasion Communication/Persuasion Matrix Model of Media Effects (McGuire) -Matrix Inputs: -source (expertise, attractiveness, etc.) -message (emotional, logical, short, long, etc.) -recipient (high or low in prior knowledge, etc.) -channel of communication (types of medium) -context (individual or group setting, noise in the environment, etc.) *Each of the inputs to persuasion process can have an impact on outputs -Matrix ou
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