Media effects -- historical overview: uncle toms cabin (harriet beacher stowe, 1825-53) was recognized as influential in swaying public opinion towards the abolitionist cause, got people talking about abolition, the ethics of slavery, helped change public opinion. Espionage act of 1917 and sedition act of 1918-criticism of us government during wwi made illegal. Frederick douglas- african american editor of (cid:281)the north star(cid:282); harassed, house burned. The birth of a nation- white supremacist film, provoked race riots. Told story of civil war, rise of kkk from white perspective. The sun (ny 1833); copied england"s popular and profitable penny daily"s that published titillating material about lowlifes. Made people worry about the effects of the reading public: new york herald (james gordon bennet): disrespectful language led to (cid:281)moral war(cid:282) and boycott. Changed in behavior and opinion due to media: printing press- elite lost control when information became widely available to the masses.