[HISTORY 247] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 15 pages long Study Guide!

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Arab conquest of North Africa (begun in Egypt and moved West)
Maghreb = ‘sunset’ b/c looking West, you see the sunset
Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria
transition zone b/w desert and grassland (yellow part)
means ‘coast’
also called the “Sudan”
Sahell = geographical designation
Sudan - ethnic designation (Sudan = land of the black ppl)
16th-18th C: Maghreb (minus Morocco) under control of the Ottomans
Ottomans established the East/West borders of Algeria
present to extract resources for Ottoman state, but it left the basic social organization and tribal structure in place on the
Algeria roughly divided into 2 groups: Beber and Arab
Today, 25% of population = Beber
Beber = ingenious ppl of North Africa (called Beber b/c they speak Beber)
Bebers are today in the most remote sections of Algeria: mountains + desert step to the South
Bebers are known as “Tuareg” but they refer to themselves as the “Kel Imazighen” which means “the free people”
also known as the “Kel Tagelmust” which means “the veiled people” (men wear them, not women)
Kabyle = ‘tribe’
1827: French consul is insulted by being swiped with a fly swatter by the Algerian Dey
1830: French conquest of Algiers
45% - nomadic of semi nomadic, and 50% sedentary cultivators
unlike Ottomans, did not keep the traditional social tribal organization
people of France had no interest in backing a colonial conquest, and there was division within the government to pursue a
colonial enterprise
so the soldiers on the ground, there was almost no accountability with actions towards native populations
destroyed and looted mosques and holy sights, and there was no justice in relations with the conquered ppl
report of French parliamentary report of activity in Algeria: super damning and condemned French activity
pro-colonialists - all about bringing a backward ppl into modern civilization
Ab Al Quadir: born in 1807 in Mascara (Oran) - Eastern Algeria
born into an elite family of his tribe
received the finest education possible in Quran, Sharia, Muslim scholarship, made the Hajj, and was a member of a
Muslim Brotherhood called “ Qadiriyya”
At age 25, Quadir was elected by the tribal elders to lead a Jihad against the French and the Ottoman Elite that was still holding
1832-1839: Quadir lays the foundations for an independent, sovereign Muslim state in east Algeria
3 sources of opposition
Tijaniyya (rival religious fraternity with the Qadiriyya)
the Kabyle in the mountains further West - b/c doesnt matter who, Kabyle does not want to be ruled by someone else
Ahmad Bey (son of an Ottoman ocial in Constantine, from an elite tribal family)
through an alliance w/ the Ottoman Sultanate, wanted to hold onto individual power in Constantine (so also
opposed to the french)
1837: makes treaties with the French to not weaken his base by always being at war
Quadir recognizes French control of coastal enclaves: Oran, Algiers, Bougie, and Bone
French recognize Quadir’s sovereignty in the hinterland
French dont want to worry about the Western Algeria
1838: Constantine falls to the French
French want to move into the hinterland to connect to Algiers
Quadir is aware, so he breaks the treaty and declares a Jihad against the French
1839-1847: total war of the French v. the forces of Ab Al Quadir
1847: Qadir surrenders
At this point, France had undertaken that role of colonial power
land and population dessimated through the war, so native algerians were severely weakened by the war
1848: series of uprisings in France
common people of France v. the Monarchy
results in the second French republic
French sponsored immigration to Algeria
desire to total rid France of elements of possible insurrection - get rid of those potential problems
AND population very large in southern France
1841-1851: European population in Algeria increased by 100,000 and continues to increase
settlers were poor people from southern Europe
called the “pied-noir” - so poor that they didnt have shoes and their feet were black
also called “colon” - the “settlers’
1845: French royal ordinance divides French Algeria into 3 administrative parts
civil territories (lots of Europeans, French civil law applies) - the coast
mixed territories (under military rule, limited self-government w/ European enclaves - further inland
Arab territories: under military administration - south
authority on the ground was still left with the tribes
so tribal social structures were kept in place
so for Arab interest, military administration was preferable
settlers wanted assimilation to France in Algeria = wanted civil administration so they could retain French citizenship and fully
but settlers fought against a military administration
1852-1857: regime in France under Napoleon III sought to balance the interests of the settlers with the native Algerians
good intentions gone awry
1863: senate decree that states that tribes of Algeria were owners of land they traditional occupied
divided under 667 “duwars” (‘communes’) which were to be administered by councils called “Jemmas”
problem: that senate decree was conceived in terms of a European political system and understanding of property rights
this decree totally undercut tribal organization = organization by communes and not by traditional tribal groups
1865: Senate decree - tried to balance interests of settlers and Native Algerians
native algerians were French, but were ruled under Muslim law. since youre french, you can serve in military and civil
administration and become a full French citizen if you agree to live under French law
this meant that you had to renounce Muslim law, which is equivalent to apostasy, but if you arent full citizens, you dont
have full citizen rights
1870: third republic of France
pied-noir wanted assimilation of their terms and push through with a civil administration
March 1870: civil regime is proclaimed in Algeria with 12 communes established in the south
October 1870: Cremieux Decree
naturalized the Jewish community of Algeria (now have full rights of French citizenship)
that was about dividing that native algerian population to that it isnt such a unified bloc
chief opposition came from the settlers: they felt threatened by having native Algerian Jewish population on an equal
footing. this began strong anti-Semetism
1871: Kabyle (native Bebers) Revolt
brutally put down in 1872 in terms of both life and land confiscation and redistribution
last Kabyle revolt ever
so much of their land was taken from them
after revolt is put down, the settlers and colonial administration look to the Kabyle as the way in which they can
assimilate French Algeria to a French political and social way of ordering a society
myth put forward that Bebers are less Muslim and can become more easily Christian
try to assimilate through education and missionary work
1881: Code de l’Indigenat: code of indigenous ppls
gov can fine and imprison the natives without trial
1900: Algeria granted its own civil status/ civilly administered
in princple, religious toleration was espoused, but in fact, only a limited number of Quranic schools allowed and the Hajj
was closely supervised and restricted
Third Republic of France: very anti clerical - secular form of government against the Church
the archbishop (Charles Lavigerie) knew he did not have the support of the gov
so christian missionaries in French algeria do not speak up against the inequalities in French Algeria
1881: France proclaims French protectorate over Tunisia
1912: France proclaims French protectorate over Morocco
A Poor Man’s Son - page 5
Page 7: second to last full paragraph
village all intermarried and connected through ancestors
here, the village is completely represents the community. the community is the person is the village
the village also represents family
Page 8: people try to show some social distinction by trying to show themselves as better, so there is some competition
Page 23 (Chapter 5):
Men are in the djemaa (domain of the men)
Busad and Amer are weaving a basket and Furralou gets cut. goes home and cries
Page 24:
mom freaks out.
Lunis asked who did this. Furralou explains that Busad and Amer tried to kill him
Lunis sees that family honors has been attacked
women also start fighting each other
so family unit begins to break down in terms of rival extended family ties
Lunis goes to the djemaa
Page 26/27:
rivalries between units in a very close family
division between men and women of the family
Page 28:
to settle all of this, they call in the local elders to determine the terms of resolution
moved from a physical fight to a competition of hospitality: who can prove to be the most generous/hospitable to elders
bottom of page 30:
terms are finally reached
let’s protect the world that we have - which shows the incredible strength of the Kabyle and prevents them from leading other
not a social group that is politically organized. riven by tensions, conflicts, and rivalries that can surface at any moment
2 Racisms:
outright bigotry
we dont know the 'other'
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French West Africa:
by 1871, Algeria has become a colonial settler state with civil status
struggle b/w French Republican Ideal v. Ideas of colonial domination
1659: St. Louis - first French trading post (claims to territory, but are essentially just merchant enclaves)
4 communes of French Senegal: St Louis, Dakar, Gorée , Rufisque
each has a mayor and a city council
had a delegate in the national senate of France
had a council that could propose and in a limited context, pass laws for themselves
voter eligibility: men who had live in the commune for 5 years and can read and write French
most are métis: mix of European/African descent
first core of an African elite
model of assimilation of French republic of the state into these 4 communes
1817: French pass legislation to abolish the slave trade
move from ‘slave trade’ to ‘legitimate trade’
first main exported commodity: gum-arabic (used for manufacturing
1850s: peanuts
this trade was handled with the French on the coast, but those who brought the goods to the coast were African middle-men
these middle men who know the terrain can organize the production and get those goods to the coast
disadvantage: middle men get their own cut of the profit, and they have autonomy until their goods get to the coast (so
can choose whether to give goods to either the French or the Brits)
1850s: major shift in French policy
Louis Faidgerbe: Governor-General of St. Louis
French control of the hinterland to have direct control of the source of the good to bringing the good to trading posts on
the coasts
Senegalese Riflemen
native african military contingent
become a force for France to continue inc in territory
2 Visionary Leaders: example of Loss
Al-Hajj Umar Tal - acts to create a reformed Muslim state
pious Muslim
established a base just inland from Gambia River, which is where French are moving in
he moves inland to upper Niger River, where there is another Muslim power (‘Fulani’ - Massina)
wages Jihad against Massina: 1862-1864
Almani Samori Touré (region near Guinea called ‘Futa Salon’) - acts for his own power
or a Muslim background, but stopped observing Islam
1861: elected to be the chief military leader of the Mande (ethnic group)
1876: established a political military power in upper Guinea
1882-1889: wages Jihad against the French
to gain backing for this, he returns to Islam to gain a powerful base to support
Muslims and historians did not like him - view him as a warlord
defeated, exiled, and dies in exile in Gabon
French now control the Upper Niger, and they keep going East
1899: Battle of Kousseri (Chad)
French defeat Rabeh ibn Fadl Allah
importance: French now control up to Lake Chad and can continue to go East
1863-1879: the Ottoman regent of Egypt is Khedive Ismail
undertakes a policy of bringing Egypt into the modern economic world - tries to rebuild infrastructure (Europeanization) and
abolish slavery/slave trade
1869: Suez Canal is inaugurated/constructed
he gets money by borrowing from France and Britain
he sells o his shares of the Suez Canal to Britain, but still can’t pay o debts
so, British intervene to try to govern finances in Egypt to get their money back
1874: he moves South and annexes Darfur
1874-1879: with Brits in his administration, he appoints General Charles GOrdon (Brits) to be governor of Sudan
1879-1882: Revolt against Ottomon elite rule
Brits didn't want a disturbance in Egypt to prevent them from getting their money
Brits put down revolt and occupy Cairo
Muhammed Ahmad ibn Abdallah - claims he is the Mahdi
Mahdi = a messianic figure who will usher in the end of times and new time of ultimate true state of Islam
declares Jihad against the Turks (b/c they lapsed from the faith by dealings with Europeans) and the Europeans (Brits)
1883: he wins important battles (on the oensive, while Egyptians are on the defensive)
1884: Gordon is sent by the Brits to Khartoum to evacuate British and Egyptian forces in Khartoum
1885: Gordon is defeated at Khartoum, and he is beheaded
the British public demands that Gordon’s death be revenged - this is an insult to us’
Brits defeat the Mahdiyya
Brits have a strong position in Egypt and the Sudan, but still arent ready to take full responsibility as a colonial power
Egypt and the Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian Condominium (both have power)
Rabeh (follower of Mahdi)
from Darfur
doesnt want to go East b/c the Brist are East
so he goes West, all the way to Lake Chad, where he meets the French and is defeated
Libya: stuck b/w Italians to the North, French to the West, and Brits to the East
Sanusiyya: movement/fraternity
founder: Muhammed ibn Ali al Sanusi
born in Western Algeria
received a first class education
1820s: goes to Mecca to continue his studies
here, he studies under a prominent Sufi master. when this master died, Al Sanusi became the master to whom others
sought guidance and inspiration
these core of disciples are the origins of the Sanusiyyya
he goes to Libya
goes to Cyreneica, where he establishes his first bases
1856: established a base that becomes a center for Sanusiyya at Jagnbub
mission: reform, and bringing the faith to those who have been pushed o to the margins or abandoned by the faith (neglect) and
had no access to teaching of Islam
NOT a Jihadist movement
had no interest in creating a political military power
Bases of this movement: Zawiya **FIRST QUIZ. KNOW THIS.
place of assembly for teaching and for arbitration (a parallel to the Djemma)
sedentary center for difusing the teachings of Sinusi
less a place than an act of piety
local population had to request to establish a Zawiya, and had to participate to contruct and provide necessary
resources for a Zawiya
He has the strongest following from the Bedouin (nomads)
Zawiyas form around commercial routes, where there are access to water, and where these nomadic tribe
develops within the context of nomadic tribal organization and nomadic life
“it is in a desert environment that is a small urban enclave” that is in harmony with nomadic life
1875-1902: 2nd Grand master of Sanusiyya = Muhammed Al-Mahdi
between Zawiyas, new network of communication (informal, not a political state organization
If you move south in Libya, you hit Chad
the French is moving up Chad, so Sanusiyya will confront the French in the South (1902)
1902-1918: 3rd Grand Master of Sanusiyya = Ahmad al-Sharif
he retreats from the French back up North
At this point (early 1900s) Italians want a piece of Africa too
Italians make a bid for control near the Libyan coast
Ottoman’s bow out, and leave the Sanusiyya to deal with Italians
Sanusiyya are able to keep out Italians, and Italians can only leave a foot hole on the coast
1914: WWI, Sanusiyya are allies of the Turks, so they are enemies of Brits and French
so this Bedouin groups is fighting 3 European powers at once: Italians, Brits, and French
1918: Ahmad al-Sharif goes into exile and leaves Libya
Muhammed Idris (AKA Sidi Idris): Fourth Grand Master
realizes that the Sanusiyya cannot maintain this 3 front military struggle
moves to policy of negotiation with Brits and Italians
1917: Acroma Accords
by these treaties, the Sanusiyya recognizes Italian enclaves at coast of Libya, won’t wage Jihad, and agreed they would
wound up Turkish agents that are plotting against the Italians
in return, Italians must recognize Sanusiyya’s autonomy/sovereignty
1923: Fascist come to power in Italy
accords are broken, and the Bedouin fight for their own independence
fight goes from 1923-1931
Italians give them choice of complete extermination or surrender: Sanusiyya chooses risk of extermination
Italians separate men and women and chlidren, and put Sanusiyya ppl in concentration camps
ties among their extended families and social organization were broken
destroy the structure of Bedouin society
Sanusiyya are defeated
1931-1941: attempt at assimilation
attempts at conversion to Catholicism, teachings in Italian
further divide the people
During WWII: Brits move in against the Italians
pg 76, last paragraph,
‘wells were dug, mosques were built, increased medical services for local populations etc.” to try to win the local population over
Page 46/47 of The Poor Man’s Son:
house becomes divided b/w Fatima and Halima
Page 48: Lunis is helpless b/c
economic base is dependent on interfamily solidarity
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