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[HISTORY 329] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 27 pages long Study Guide!


Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 329
Professor
Matthew Lassiter
Study Guide
Midterm

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U of M
HISTORY 329
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Crime and Drugs in Modern America
Reading notes:
1. Why are so many Americans in prison? Glenn Loury (2007) professor at Brown
a. 99’s – drive-by shootings, drug deals gone bad, crack cocaine, gangster rap
b. between 1960 and 1990 in New Haven:
i. annual murders rose from 6-31,
ii. rapes rose from 4-168
iii. robberies rose from 16-1,784
1. population declined by 14%
c. crime concentrated in central cities
d. / of Peslaia’s iolet ies ee oitted i Phill (/th of states
population)
i. became a dominating political topic
e. incited fear and predictions that these statistics would continue to worsen
i. threw a lot of people in jail when the old prisons were filled we built
new ones
1. the onslaught that was predicted never came, however, as crime
rates fell, imprisonment rates remained high resulting in the
current American prison system
f. U.“. houses % of he old’s iates
i. Incarceration rate = 714 per 100,000 residents is almost 40% greater than
those of our neatest competitors
1. Bahamas
2. Belarus
3. Russia
ii. 6.2 times that of Canada
iii. 7.8 times that of France
iv. 12.3 that of Japan
g. spending $200 billion annually on law enforcement and corrections at all levels
of government
h. 1/3rd of inmates are violent criminals while 2/3 are mainly property and drug
offenders
i. on average inmates have less than 11 years of schooling and are
disproportionately black
i. it became this way because when faced with a frightening social problem, we
solved it by throwing people in jail to lessen crime rates
i. increased incarceration did reduce crime
1. 1990s reduction in violent crime can be attributed to the prison
boom range from 5%-25%
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2. analysts now say that we have entered the zone of diminishing
returns
j. growth in punitiveness contributed to increase in incarceration despite the fact
that crime has not continued to explode as suspected
i. describes the shift in thinking about the basic purpose of criminal justice
ii. 9’s soiologist Daid Galad – corrections system was commonly
seen as a way to prepare offenders to rejoin society
iii. now it is focused on punishment, rather than rehabilitation
iv. felons viewed as risks, not people to be helped
v. new system aided by new relationship between media politicians
public
1. media attention does not bear relation to the frequency of the
particular type of crime, yet politicians make their careers based
on public reaction to media coverage of such crimes
k. racial component and social morality
i. more blacks are incarcerated than whites
ii. cost on their families and the individual themselves should be considered
questions the nature of the American state and its relationship to its
people
1. I agree, there is a problem and I do think prisons need to be
thought of as more of a rehabilitation than a solution to a social
issue, however, without proper funding and training we cannot
ake that a ealit ad I pesoall do’t feel that e eed to e
more gentle with people that murder others in cold blood. this
article seems to suggest that no one deserves to be punished
harshly. I think we can all agree we would require proper
facilitation before allowing violent criminals to just be released
back into society. moral problem but also a medical problem
l. Joh Ral’s theo of justie
i. Remove veil of ignorance from our own situation
1. Race, class, gender, talents
ii. What rules would we pick if we seriously imagined that we could turn out
to be anyone in society?
iii. Folloig the diffeee piiple e should peit ieualities ol if
they work to improve the circumstances of the least advantaged
members of society object or moral inquire being distribution of a
negative good, punishment, etc. NOT wealth and income
iv. When we hold a person responsible for his or her conduct by
establishing laws, investing in their enforcement, and cosigning some
persons to prisons we also need to think about whether or not we have
presented the individual with opportunities for a good life fair
conditions for each person
m. Responsibility is a matter of ethics, not social science
n. Causality
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