Study Guides (400,000)
US (230,000)
U of M (5,000)
POLSCI (300)
All (20)
Final

POLSCI 140 Final: Exam Study Guide at UMich


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLSCI 140
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 34 pages of the document.
POLITICAL SCIENCE 140 -
FINAL STUDY GUIDE
LET’S GET THIS GODDAMN
BREAD NERDS
TERMS & EXAMPLES
1. COLLECTIVE ACTION
- Definition: goal-oriented action by a group of individuals.
- Goal is often a “public good.”
-Definition: a public good has two characteristics. 1) nonexcludability and 2) nonrivalry
-nonexcludability
: It is difficult to prevent those who did not contribute to its
supply from consuming the good.
-nonrivalry
: one person’s consumption does not reduce the amount that others can
consume.
2. SOCIAL CAPITAL
- “features of social life – networks, norms, and trust – that enable participants to act
together more effectively to pursue shared objectives.” Putnam, 1995.
- Often measured by participation in civic associations or voluntary associations.
- Not necessarily a good thing. Associational life doesn’t just have to contribute to
democracy, but can contribute to fascism and populism in other areas.
- Distinct from family (clan) ties, commercial ties, and political parties. Or distinct, but
related to: Blood, money, power

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- Book club, church, PTA, etc.
- BONDING OR BRIDGING?
-Bonding social capital links like members of a group more closely together.
- Based on ethnicity, class, or another identity factor that improves
collective identity and makes the group feel stronger.
- Better for marginalized group, but can contribute to exclusion and political
fragmentation.
- But bonding social capital can also be exclusionary; contributing to
inequality in economic or political resources.
-Bridging social capital are norms of reciprocity and cooperation within a
heterogeneous social group.
- Putnam’s example of civic and voluntary associations, such as PTO, bowling
leagues, sports leagues, etc.
- People of different religions joining together, whether in formal ways like in
volunteer organizations or the BAR associations but also informal ways like
allowing children to play with each other.
- Helps to cause compromise and bring people together to form a common goal
- Bridging social capital associated with higher levels of democratic performance
and less violence.
3. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
- “Organized, sustained, and collective efforts that make claims on behalf of members of
group, challenge the power of government authorities or other groups in civil society;
contest the legitimacy of established ideas or practices; or advance new ideas or
practices.” (Samuels, pg 235)
- Different than voting, work outside of formal institutions to cause/influence social change
- Often described as “grass roots” forms of political mobilization, because they are the
main vehicles for ordinary people’s engagement in politics.
-EXAMPLES:
- The Civil Rights Movement, 1960s, US
- Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1970s-90s, South Africa
- Tea Party Movement, 2010-, U S
- Black Lives Matter, 2013, US
-CHARACTERISTICS:
- They differ from political parties in the following ways:
- The nature of their appeals

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- They make, broad, abstract appeals that are based on appeal’s to
individuals perceived political identities
- EX - indigenous rights movements in Latin America, the
Civil Rights movement in the US
- They do seek political change, but the goals are still more abstract.
A pro-democracy movement will base their goals on the appeal to
“political equality” and “individual political freedoms”
- These are relatively informal organizations and tend to have less
hierarchical and more fluid structures
- They tend to concentrate their activities within civil society rather than in
formal institutions of the state.
4. POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE
-DEFINITIONS
- The way a country’s political system shapes, promotes, checks or
absorbs the challenged it confronts from organized civil society.
- This can be thought as the relative degree of openness or resistance of a polity (organized
society) to new forms of contentious politics.
- 2 KEY ELEMENTS
- 1. Do existing organizations already “cover the bases” in terms of contentious
issues, interests, and identities in a given society.
- For example, are there already a lot of human rights movements that are
active within a society? If this is the case, it’s less likely a new one will
pop up and mobilize when an existing one is already working
- BUT, but there’s a leader that’s trying to organize a pro-democracy
movement in a non-democratic country where no movement like this
exists, they’ll have a better chance of success.
- 2. Does the state allow mobilization? Or, does it seek to repress it?
- A human rights movement will form more easily in a democracy.
- A pro-democracy movement might face surveillance and police repression
in a non-democratic state.
- When the state seeks to control society, political leaders and followers
mobilize against the state at their own peril. So even though social
moments tend to be informal, state institutions have incredible influence to
their success.
5. INTEREST GROUPS
- Organized groups of citizens who seek to ensure that the state enacts particular policies.
-CHARACTERISTICS
:
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version