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Exam 3 Review Notes (everything you need to know)

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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Exam 3 Review • Language • Arbitrarily Symbolic o No connection between symbol and concept o Words do not have to look or sound like what they describe • Generative Property of Language o Using rules of language (our internalized knowledge) we can create an unlimited number of new utterances. o Limited number of words – but they can be combined in unlimited ways. • Language structure o Sentence, phrase, word, morpheme, phoneme • Phoneme: Sounds of language o Smallest meaningful unit of speech o Bit – pit o Different languages use different sets of phonemes. o About 45 phonemes in English o Words are sequences of phonemes • Minimal Pair Test: Does substituting one sound for another produce a different word? • Articulation o Different phonemes are produced by our vocal apparatus depending on the position of our tongues, lips, jaw, vocal cords, etc. o Consonants vs. vowels  For consonants the airflow is partially or fully obstructed. • Stop consonants – ba/da/ta/ - temporary blockage of airflow and then a quick release. • Fricatives- s/z/v/f – restricted airflow • (there also other categories of consonants)  For vowels airflow is largely unobstructed. • Lips/tongue position matters a lot. • Eeee vs. ahhh. • Speech perception o Actual physical signal created by our vocal apparatus is time varying array of acoustic energy at different frequencies. o Segment and Categorize these patterns of sound into a limited set of phonemes. • Sound waves o Speech gestures produce sound waves, sound waves have two properties: o Frequency.  How often the soundwave repeats itself.  Frequency is the number of cycles per second (Hertz, Hz).  High frequency sounds have higher pitch, low frequency sounds have lower pitch. o Amplitude. (How much the energy sound has). • Visualizing speech o Device called a speech spectrograph produces a visual representation of speech sounds. o Shows amplitude (energy) of the sound at different frequencies over time. o These graphs/plots are called spectrograms. • Properties of speech sounds o Formants: on a spectrograph, formants are represented as dark bands.  Formants are the frequencies at which high levels of acoustic energy are concentrated. o What causes concentration of energy at these frequencies?  That’s what articulation is all about – position of our tongue, lips, teeth, vocal cords. o Steady State Formants: formants that do not change frequency. o Important for vowels. o Transitional: Formants shift from one frequency to another.  Can be rising (starts at lower frequency and move to higher frequency).  Or falling (starts at higher frequencies and moves to lower).  Transitional formants are important for consonants. • Problems with speech recognition o Segmentation  No breaks between words o Speaker variability  Different people saying the same sound, still different o Lack of invariance  Same speaker saying same phoneme, but differs due to context  Coarticulation • Starting position: So, if an /i/ follows a /b/ it has to sound different than if it followed a /k/. Bee vs. key. • Also, the articulators start moving toward position for the NEXT sound before first one is finished.  Pitch: If you are excited, for example, and speaking at a higher pitch the actual frequencies of the formants will be different.  Rate: If you are speaking quickly then each phoneme will be shortened. A /w/ in fast speech may not be much longer than a /b/ in slower speech. So, a fast win, similar acoustically to a slow bin. • Morphology o Morphology is branch of linguistics that studies words and their structure. o Morphemes are the smallest meaningful parts of words. Words are made up of one or more morphemes. Changes in morphemes, lead to changes in word meaning. o One word can be made up of just one or of several morphemes. o Cat (one morpheme, mono-morphemic). o Cats (two morphemes, cat+plural). o Meaning changes from one cat to more than one cat. o One morpheme  Desire o Two morphemes  Desire+able o Three morphemes  Desire+able+ity o Four morphemes  Un+desire+able+ity o Free morphemes: Can appear by itself.  Everyone.  Every, one. o Bound Morphemes  Cook, cooks, “s” cannot appear by itself.  Suffixes: attached to ends of words. • swimmer, typist, quickly.  Prefixes: attached to beginning of words. • Undo, preview, disobey, etc. o Derivation  Process by which morphemes are added to words to create new words.  Often changes the grammatical class of the word. o Inflection  Inflection does not usually change pronunciation of the root. • Jump, jumps, jumped.  Inflection usually applies more generally than derivation (more productive). o Compounding  Can create new words by joining to existing words.  Adjective+adjective: bittersweet.  Noun+noun: rainbow.  Noun+verb:spoonfeed.  Verb+noun=pickpocket. • Syntax o Rules used to put words together for a sentence o Governs how words are combined into larger units such as phrases and sentences. o Sentence = Noun Phrase + Verb Phrase o Noun phrase [NP]  Contains a noun and relevant descriptors o Verb phrase [VP]  Contains at least one verb and possibly objects it acts upon o Lexical vs Functional  Lexical categories • Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverbs  Functional categories. • Determiners, Auxliaries • Meanings are usually harder to define than for lexical categories. • Language and the brain o Broca’s aphasia  Left frontal lobe  Difficulty with language production: Slow, halting speech.  Simple grammar: no function words (be, of, the).  Comprehension largely intact. o Wernicke’s aphasia  Damage to left temporal lobe  Lost ability to comprehend spoken words, but language production remains fluent.  But this fluent speech (not halting like Broca’s) makes little sense (word salad).  Made-up words, word substitutions. o Conduction aphasia  damage to connections between Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area: less severe damage to language ability, but trouble monitoring speech and repeating back sentences. o The neural pathway for repeating a heard word (auditory cortex to Wernicke’s area to Broca’s area to motor cortex) • Linguistic Relativity o Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis  Strong interpretation  Thoughts and behavior are determined by language  The structure of anyone’s native language strongly influences or fully determines the worldview he will acquire as he learns the language (Brown 1976). o Milder interpretation  Thoughts and behavior are influenced by language  Variety of interesting studies, some for, some against o Berlin and Kay  Berlin and Kay found that there are eleven specific colors that all languages derive their color terms from. Follows a hierarchy  Indicated that there may be universal, physiologically based principles behind color naming. o Heider  Tribe asked to recognize color chips  Dani behaved the same as English speakers: could remember the right color chips even though they had no words for themAND they recognized the focal colors better than non-focal. o Codability: How easily a concept can be described in a given language.  If you have a word for concept X it’s a lot easier to encode that concept. o Effects of labels on memory  Kay and Kempton • English speakers used labels, others used wavelengths of color • Supports linguistic relativity  Hoffman Lau and Johnson • Greater stereotype present when there is a single word for it • Language development o What has to be learned?  Parsing language sounds • Learn phonemes, combine into words  Assigning meanings to words  Learning grammar rules  Nativist vs. Empiricist • Innate vs. learned o Process  Discriminat
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