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[PSYCH 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (77 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 111
Professor
Shelly Schreier
Study Guide
Midterm

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U of M
PSYCH 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Developmental Psychology: Universal aspects of lifespan development
from conception through death; Identifies cultural variations
Explores physical, cognitive, social and emotional development
Looks at elements of continuity and change over time
Prenatal Development:
Germinal phase:
o Conception- 2 weeks
o Zygote: fertilized egg divides and implants itself in the wall of the uterus
o Placenta: structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the
othe’s loodstea; allos aste to pass out
Embryonic stage:
o 2-8 weeks
o buds for limbs form and grow
o major organs/ digestive system differentiating
o heartbeat begins
fetal stage:
8 weeks- birth
buds for teeth form
sex organs develop rapidly
arms/fingers move
o 4th month:
face looks human
lower body outgrows head
bones are defined
o 5th month:
fingernails and toenails appear
lanugo: fine wooly hair over body
vernix: waxy coating collects
gooey stuff that helps baby slide out and looks gross when born
o 6th month:
eyebrows/lashes well defined
eyes completely formed
o 7th month:
fetus capable of life outside the uterus
age threshold of viability has now changed and considered to be 23-26 weeks instead of
27-28
some do survive if born earlier but this is the minimum we look for in order to make sure
major developmental stages have passed
o 8/9 month:
fat is deposited for later use
fingernails grow beyond fingertips
lanugo is shed
myelination of brain takes place in the fetal stage
chief organs increase functioning
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vernix covers body
Teratogens: harmful toxins that affect development resulting in defect, damage or anomaly
o Important concepts:
Dose- unclear what dose will have an effect
Genetic/heredity: stability- just like he ou dik ou do’t ko ho it ill effet
diffeet people, ou do’t ko ho it will effect different babies
Interaction with environmental influences: stress, nutrition, lack of medical care
Age of organism at exposure makes a difference
o Comorbidity: abuse of multiple substances is likely to result in multiple diseases
o Drugs or chemicals: increased understanding of the role of prenatal exposure to drugs on
the developing child
Thalidomide: helped identify how certain drugs could alter development
o Stress: prolonged stress linked with prematurity and low birth weight
o Smoking: mild stimulant; increases fetal activity
Low birth weight
Perceptual and attentional problems
Increased SIDS risk
Even sitting in a car and touching a seat in a car that was just smoked in influences babies
o Marijuana:
Low birthweight
Disturbed sleep in newborns
Reduced attention to environment
o Heroin:
Premature birth weight
Tremulous behavior
Poor sleep
Poor sucking and feeding ( was ad fo the a to suk it i so the did’t suk and now
the do’t ko ho
Risk of SIDS
o Cocaine:
Premature size/ weight
Tremulous high pitched crying
Respiratory and regurgitation problems
Rigidity
Withdrawal symptoms
Deformities
o Alcohol:
leading teratogen in US that causes intellectual disabilities
physical symptoms:
growth retardation
head and facial abnormalities
small ears, big ears, flattened indentation by lips and nose
microcephaly
skeletal, brain and heart damage
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