[PSYCH 401] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (33 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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U of M
PSYCH 401
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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January 10, 2017
Lecture 1
Prisoner’s dilemma game
A way of studying evolution
Strategies
Minimal group paradigm
Simulates families and kin-selection
Tit-for-tat
Trust someone until they betray you
Goal of game changes peoples’ behavior
Change payoff structure (point system)
Change goal/outcome
In this particular game in class, saying yes all the time will maximize the points you can get,
saying no all the time will cause other people to outcompete you
Cooperation is an evolutionary advantage but comes with the hard problem of how do you
trust that the other person this time won’t betray you
Reputations have been developed in order to tell you a person’s betrayal history and that
they are unable to cooperate
Being able to see a person’s Y/N history in the game represents a human’s reputation
Fitness in evolution
Ability to survive and reproduce
Inclusive fitness
Fitness of people with the same genes as you (i.e. family members)
Selection occurs at the level of the gene
Selection is not a measure about an organism’s or a specie’s reproduction but instead the
ability of a gene to be copied and passed on
Therefore, from the gene’s perspective, it doesn’t matter if the gene is in one body or
another
If another organism shares genes with you, that organism surviving and reproducing is
the same thing as you surviving and reproducing
This isn’t exactly true though because only half of your genes are passed on
On average, people are 50% related to their siblings (this assumes you get exactly half
of your mom’s and your dad’s genome and that your sibling gets the other half
There is uncertainty about who your father is
Kin-selection
Fit decision
If benefits minus costs is greater than zero, continue (if B - C > 0)
However, when you consider that you can never be truly certain who your father is, the
equation changes
If rcB - C > 0
When you take into account your ability to have kids (fecundity), the equation changes again
to frcB - C > 0
How can you guarantee kinship to your father?
At the base level (without technology), similar facial appearances give away kinship, as
well as similar characteristics (humor, tics)
A high relationship between parents might increase the likelihood that your father is your
biological father
Inherited features of diseases from the father to you
DNA testing
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Proximate vs. ultimate explanations
Ultimate explanations
Operates at the level of evolution, across generations
Why do we pay attention to why people look alike? Why do we love our family members?
Increases our fitness
Kin selection is an ultimate-level explanation
Proximate explanations
Things that matter in the moment
Why do I care about my sister? Because I love her and she matters to me, regardless of
her genes
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