Sports Final Study Guide.docx

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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
SOC 102
Oscar Ybarra

Study Guide for Final (Version 1.0) This guide is a preliminary list of items that could appear on the final. There will be an updated version posted before lecture on December 9. As before, I make no claim that the list includes everything that will be on the exam. Also there are likely to be a several things this list that are not on the exam. Be generally familiar with the main theoretical approaches discussed in the class (functionalist, structuralist, and interactionist) Be generally familiar with the lecture material covering Marx, Weber, and Durkheim Know the trends in televised sports with regard to ratings and coverage Personal Internalization Model and Interactionist Model of socialization Past research on socialization and sports was often based on structural theories and a personal internalization model Personal Internalization Model (Structural)- Social learning occurs as people internalize the rules of society as they grow up in their families, attend school, interact with peers, and receive images and messages through the media Sport Participation (Structural)-Research based on a personal internalization model of socialization found that sport participation is related to: -a person’s abilities, characteristics, and resources -the influence of significant others -the availability of opportunities to play and enjoy sports Interactionist Model of Socialization -Social interaction is the basis for creating and maintain the -organization of our social worlds -cultural frameworks the we use to give them meaning Gender socialization (UNICEF, It’s Pat, Lorber) Bio=sex gender= rules (we learn throughout life) Research Using an Interactionist Approach -it uses qualitative methods (in-depth interviews, fieldwork, participant, observations, etc). -it focuses on relationships and decision-making processes that occur over time. -it recognizes that reasons for participation change over time. Look over research cited by coakley*******exam -coakley and white on deciding to play Reasons ttht organized youth sports has developed and flourished in the US beginning in the 20 century Be familiar with the research about young children and organized sports The challenges of being a student-athlete in college -midweek games -conferences that are very spread out geographically -travel arrangements -practice times -scholarships are limited and competitive and generally have been one-year guarantees Be familiar with gender equity stats in NCAA division 1 Be familiar with commercialization of sports and what enables commercialization to be successful Be familiar with Greek games (including athletes mentioned in lecture and other famous Greek citizens involved in athletic festivals), Roman games, and Medieval games Muscular Christianity th -Sports near the Turn of the 20 Century- It was during this time that sports became associated with positive developmental outcomes. The YMCA and the movement toward “muscular Christianity” showed a link between physical strength and the ability to do good works. -Naismith and Luther Gulick, his superintendent were influenced by the doctrine of muscular Christianity which was an idea coined in the 1850s based on the idea that sports teach young men (and women) to be reverent, adventuresome, courageous, cooperative, loyal ,etc. In other words, sports participation builds character. It would enable them to work for God. Conspicuous consumption and how it relates to sports “Conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is a means of reputability to the gentleman of leisure.”- Thorstein Veblen -spending money to show how much wealth they have - Class issues were important in the development of sports in the late 19 and early 20 century. Participation in certain sports was used as a sign of status among the wealthy (not unlike previous times). - The big change in the world of sports was that economic expansion, progressive government reforms and labor unions allowed more middle and working class people to have more leisure time and access to sports. The societal, economic, and political factors that contributed to the rise of modern sports Marxist thought and the rise of modern sports Know all seven of Guttmann's characteristics of modern sports and the major thinker who influenced Guttmann’s thinking. The emphasis in modern sports is on achievement and entertainment on worship to religious purposes Equality Two senses of the term- 1. Everyone should have the opportunity to compete 2. conditions for all contestants should be the same -does not pertain to outcome Specialization In sports has existed throughout many times periods, but has not always been a prominent feature. We know the Greeks tended to specialize in types of events and that the Roman gladiators were trained in a single capacity. The Middle Ages and Renaissance periods has less socialization. Today.. Rationalization Although there have usually been rules, sometimes very extensive governing play, modern sports are characterized by rules that have a logical relationship between means and ends. Bureaucratization There are some early examples of sports bureaucracy in Greek and Roman societies, but is not really comparable to the national and international organizations that govern the play of various sports today. Quantification Modern sports are characterized by precise measurement and timing. Stats are kept and documented. Records Keeping accurate stats data allows for comparison of achievement over time and tracking personal, national, and world record. Know about the rise of ESPN and its various effects from lecture Sports as a Utility “ESPNS has turned sports into a utility… What ESPN did was to make it possible to turn on your TV and have sports come out, just like turning on your faucet and have water come out.” ESPN Formula -A key ESPN product is its attitude, exemplified by the personalities created and its distinctly irreverent style. -ESPN This is Sports Center commericals- gives a sense of how and who they are trying to appeal to -can get viewers -espn doesn’t need rights to show Controversies -ESPN is sometimes accused of favoring certain teams (ie Red Sox and Yankees) and also certain college conferences (ACC in basketball, for example) Unintended Consequences? -highlights shows can affect the game and youth that are learning the game which can affect how the game is played going forward -ESPN has made a highlight watchers out of us- think the entire game is boring Media and Power -Media usually serves the interests of those with power and wealth in society. Know the impacts of concentrated corporate control -As corporate control of media has become more concentrated, media content tens to promote consumerism, individualism, competition, and class inequality as being natural and necessary in society. -The X Games were created by ESPN. ESPN is owned by Disney. -The people who control the X Games don’t promote a noncompetitive, expressive culture—it’s not in their interest. Disparity in media coverage between male and female sports Know the trends in televised sports—rights fees, ratings, benefits and uses for the broadcaster -Rights fees have skyrocketed since the 1960s -Sports programming has increased dramatically. -As more events are covered, ratings for particular events have decreased. (audience fragmentation) -Television companies use sports events to promote other programming. -Television companies are parts of conglomerates that now own teams, sport events, and other businesses that benefit from sports coverage and its commercials. The reasons for corporate sponsorship and their relation to Di Maggio and Powell’s ideas about corporate decision making Why Is There So Much Money Devoted to Corporate Sponsorships? -Decision-making power in large media corporations rests with many male executives who love sports. -The values and experiences of men are deeply embedded in the cultures of these corporations. -When sports emphasize competition, domination, and achievement, many male executives feel that these are crucial factors in their companies. -The above are examples of Normative Pressures in Di Maggio and Powell terms Media Content -is always edited and “re-presented” by those who control media organizations -Editing decisions are based on one or more of these goals: -making profits, influencing cultural values, providing a public service, enhancing personal status and reputation, and expressing self in technical, artistic, or personal ways -media representations Wide World Of Sports- let us see lots of things Image and Narratives -Media coverage is constructed around specific themes and messages. For athletes with disabilities, the coverage usually fits in one of these categories:- patronizing/curiosity/tragdy/inspiration/mystification/pity/surprise -The irony: As the athletes disrupt and challenge stereotypes about disabilities, the media coverage creates others, such as the Ideologies -Media coverage is constructed around specific ideological themes and messages: -Success (emphasis on winners, losers, and final scores, and on big plays, big hits, and sacrificing self for team success) -Consumption “This game is brought to you by…””This is the … half time report” The influences upon the editing choices during broadcasts Know how race and ethnicity are typically portrayed in today’s media coverage including the branding of Michael Jordan Know the main points in the Duncan article Know the main points in the Dembicki article Know some of the approximate amounts that UM has invested into athletic facilities in the past six years or so Know the sources of revenue for the UM Athletic Department Know the approximate proportion of public/private funding among recently built stadiums Know the approximate size of the American sports industry (in dollars) What sports franchise is the most valuable in the US? How does this compare with other franchises in other countries? Know the factors that have enabled commercialization Effects of privatization of sports Origins of baseball, basketball, football, and soccer Baseball founder and founding myth There’s a myth perpetuated by Albert Spalding that Abner Doubleday who served in the US Army would become a general for the Union forces during the Civil War was the originator of baseball and that the game began in 1839 in Cooperstown, New York. General features of the original rules or baseball, basketball and football-do not need any specifics The Reserve Clause in baseball and its importance in terms of player salaries -The two leagues abided by an agreement that they would respect the territory and player contracts of the teams in the leagues and effectively established these two leagues as major leagues. -The reserve clause stipulated that the club had the rights to a player even after a contract ended. Players then could leave a team only through trade, release or sale of the player’s contract to another team. -The players were not happy with the reserve clause and rival leagues would emerge, although they were quickly squashed. The competition though did generally serve to boost player’s salaries. The General Agreement and its importance Impact of the General Agreement- Major and Minor Leagues -The clubs in the National League and American Association thrived in the larger cities Baseball also thrived in smaller cities, but these clubs became feeders to the major league clubs and could sell players to the majors. Even today, it is common to see minor league teams in smaller cities. Baseball’s American League, when it begins, its path to success, and its importance In 1901, the American League formed as a direct competitor to the National League and located some teams in the same city as the older league’s teams. They even went against the General Agreement and signed players from National League teams. Eventually, an agreement was reached to have two separate but equal leagues which is the format that currently exists. Guttmann’s argument about why/how baseball became the national pastime Mark Twain’s view of baseball Guttmann’s speculation on the decline of baseball from national pastime status Know about the Negro Leagues and Women’s Baseball Negro Leagues -The first all black pro team was the Cuban Giants -Negro leagues with pro players existed from 1920-1951 -salaries were considerably lower than majors leagues and even many minor leagues -the game was very rough. Infielders wore shin guards The idea of muscular Christianity and its relationship to sports -Naismith and Luther Gulick, his superintendent were influenced by the doctrine of muscular Christianity which was an idea coined in the 1850s based on the idea that sports teach young men (and women) to be reverent, adventuresome, courageous, cooperative, loyal ,etc. In other words, sports participation builds character. It would enable them to work for God. Circumstances surrounding the invention of basketball The organizational context of basketball, baseball, football, and soccer Be familiar with the Globetrotters story -black players not allowed in the NBA- so they tried out for Harlem Globetrotters -only way it was acceptable for blacks to beat whites was by being funny -less interested in their talent, but their skin color because many whites never saw blacks -Negro neighborhood= Harlem denotes they’ve been around= globetrotters -white basketball= formal black basketball= free, rules were seen as suggestion with room to improvise -sense of timing at their height and how they affected society- what made them acceptable was being able to “play the clown” -Aber Saperstein negotiation with University of San Fran coach to try to get Bill Russell to play for the Trotters. Russell was insulted and entered the NBA instead. Drafted by the Celtics, Russell had a fantastic NBA career. -Through these accomplishments (trotters beating all white lakers-best pro team) desegregation to occur. Be familiar with aspects of the college game discussed in lecture Promotion of the game of basketball and rule changes CCNY 1950 and Kentucky 1952 CCNY 1950 -The City College of New York is the only team that won the post-season NCAA and NIT championships in the same year. -It was later found that many of the players were paid by gamblers to make sure that the margin of victory stayed within the point spread. -Also improprieties were found in the recruitment of some of the CCNY players. Kentucky 1952-1953 -Kentucky players were arrested in 1951 for point shaving during a NIT game in 1949. The NCAA investigated and ruled Kentucky ineligible for postseason play and instructed NCAA members not to schedule games with Kentucky for the season. This effectively became the first application of a “death penalty.” Professional basketball, the rise of the NBA, and its dominant team The Bird-Johnson rivalry The importance of David Stern General information regarding women’s professional basketball The WNBA -women’s pro basketball -started with 8 franchises in 1997 -four of these franchises are part of the 12 current franchises -play a shorter season that the men’s and play during the men’s off season -several are associated with an NBA team and play in the same arena Harvard’s role in the origins of American football and Bloody Monday The Savior of American Football -Harvard rightly claims to be the real home of football Bloody Monday -The first Monday of the fall semester would be referred to as “bloody Monday” as the freshen would take on the sophomores through the 1850s A More Modern Football Game -By the 1860a, the game had gradually transformed into a game with more rules. Elite schools in the Boston area had settled upon rules that would also allow running with the ball under certain conditions. Harvard students embraced this form of the game. Moment of Truth -Columbia, Princeton, Yale, Rutgers, and Stevens had gotten together and agreed to a set of rules in 1873, but Harvard resisted, preferring the Boston Game which involved more running. Rule Changes -By 1876, Princeton, Columbia, Harvard and Yale met to regularize the rules of the game. Prior to this, games were played according to the rules established by the home squad. -The early versions of football were very violent- death wasn’t uncommon First intercollegiate football (and soccer) game -The first football game was played between Rutgers and Princeton in 1869 is widely considered the first intercollegiate football game. The importance of Walter Camp (Yale coach) and the standardization of football rules -Walter Camp is the most influential person in the development of the game of football. -In 1880 the center snap and a static line of scrimmage were introduced thus differentiating offensive roles from defensive roles. -By 1882, eleven positions on each side of the ball were specified and the first down was established The timing of the rise of professional leagues in the major sports -In addition to the class background of the game, Guttmann notes that some people believed that the timing of football’s rise in popularity was associated with the US’s increasingly militaristic actions in the world, especially in the SE Asia -Guttmann explains that a simple catharsis theory does not seem to have much support. -Guttmann goes on to explain how this type of hypothesis does seem to fit well with the story of how college football attained and maintained popularity among the middle class, despite being a violent sport Popularity of college game compared to professional in the major sports Desegregation of the major team sports The AFL -The AFL begins playing games in 1960. The league is started by owners who were denied an expansion franchise by the NFL or by men who were minority owners and the league operates from 1960-1969. The leagues competed directly against each other until a merger agreement was reached including a championship game between the two league champions- the Super Bowl NFL attendance -NFL teams average over 67,000 fans per game in 2011-12 making it the most attended domestic sports league in the world. Super Bowl ads and ratings -Annually is the second most watched televised sports event in the world and is generally the most watched TV program in the US each year. -Advertisers pay up to $3.5 million for a 30 second spot during the game. -Indianapolis reported that the 2012 Super Bowl contributed $152 million to the city and state economy (does not include expenses) The Rooney Rule -requires NFL teams to interview minority candidates for head coaching and senior football operation jobs -until revenetly, there were few black coaches
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