Study Guide: Chapters Three and Six

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Robert Paynter

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Alexandria Gold September 16 , 2013 Chapter Three | Evolution Terms: Cosmologies: conceptual frameworks that present the universe as an orderly system. Evolution: refers to the process of change in the genetic makeup of a species over time. Gene: can be considered a deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that encodes the production of a particular protein. Genotype: actual genetic makeup of an organism. Phenotype: external, observable characteristics of the organism that are shaped in part by both the organism’s genetic makeup and unique life history. Ecological niche: the specific environmental conditions to which a species is adapted to. Species: group of organisms that have similar physical characteristics. Gradualism: Hypothesis by Darwin that stated that speciation was a gradual process of evolution occurring very slowly as different populations became isolated. (phyletic gradualism) Punctuated equilibrium: the theory of evolution that species remain relatively stable for long periods, with major changes and new species arising very rapidly as a result of mutations or changes in selective pressures. Continental drift: over time as the continents have drifted together and then separated. 1. What is the most important cosmological tradition affecting Western views of creation? The biblical Book of Genesis – describes how God created the cosmos, created the world in six days – Adam and Eve, etc. 2. Who are associated with the idea of evolution and especially the idea of natural selection? Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. 3. If you lift weights and develop tremendous upper body strength, can you biologically pass this down to children? No. 4. Who is associated with this kind of false evolution? Chevalier de Lamarack. 5. What biologically does a gene do? Genes determine the physical characteristics of an organism. 6. What four forces lead to changes in the frequency of alleles between generations and how are they defined? Mutations – alterations of genetic material at the cellular level. Gene flow – exchange of alleles between populations as a result of interbreeding. Genetic drift – evolutionary change resulting from random sampling phenomena that eliminate or maintain certain alleles in a gene pool. Natural selection – genetic change in a population, as reflected in allele frequencies and as a result of differential reproductive successes. 7. Has continental drift played a role in human evolution and does it still do so? Yes, because even today fossils and artifacts found in North America have matched artifacts on complete opposite sides of the world, proving that humans may have not always lived on one unique continent. Also, this has helped scientists understand the distribution of different plant and animal species. 8. Compare and contrast science and scientific creationism on the concept of evolution. Scientific creationists oppose teaching evolution. Propose a biblically based explanation for the origins of the universe and of life. Reject modern geology, physics and chemistry. Science involves research and actual data besides basing everything off of the bible. The science perspective supports modern science and evolution. Chapter Six | Human Variation Terms: Race, has a meaning similar to “species” or “kind.” Racism, an ideology that advocates the superior of certain races and the inferiority of others, which leads to discrimination. 1. How do hemoglobin and melanin affect human skin color? Melanin primarily determines the lightness or darkness of skin and is responsible for variation of tan, brown and black skin color. The arrangement of melanocytes and the amount of melanin they produce underlie variation in skin color. Hemoglobin gives red blo
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