September 16 , 2013
Chapter Three | Evolution
Cosmologies: conceptual frameworks that present the universe as an orderly
Evolution: refers to the process of change in the genetic makeup of a species over
Gene: can be considered a deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that encodes the
production of a particular protein.
Genotype: actual genetic makeup of an organism.
Phenotype: external, observable characteristics of the organism that are shaped
in part by both the organism’s genetic makeup and unique life history.
Ecological niche: the specific environmental conditions to which a species is
Species: group of organisms that have similar physical characteristics.
Gradualism: Hypothesis by Darwin that stated that speciation was a gradual
process of evolution occurring very slowly as different populations became
isolated. (phyletic gradualism)
Punctuated equilibrium: the theory of evolution that species remain relatively
stable for long periods, with major changes and new species arising very rapidly
as a result of mutations or changes in selective pressures.
Continental drift: over time as the continents have drifted together and then
1. What is the most important cosmological tradition affecting
Western views of creation?
The biblical Book of Genesis – describes how God created the cosmos, created the
world in six days – Adam and Eve, etc.
2. Who are associated with the idea of evolution and especially the
idea of natural selection?
Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
3. If you lift weights and develop tremendous upper body strength,
can you biologically pass this down to children?
4. Who is associated with this kind of false evolution?
Chevalier de Lamarack.
5. What biologically does a gene do?
Genes determine the physical characteristics of an organism. 6. What four forces lead to changes in the frequency of alleles
between generations and how are they defined?
Mutations – alterations of genetic material at the cellular level.
Gene flow – exchange of alleles between populations as a result of interbreeding.
Genetic drift – evolutionary change resulting from random sampling phenomena
that eliminate or maintain certain alleles in a gene pool.
Natural selection – genetic change in a population, as reflected in allele
frequencies and as a result of differential reproductive successes.
7. Has continental drift played a role in human evolution and does it
still do so?
Yes, because even today fossils and artifacts found in North America have
matched artifacts on complete opposite sides of the world, proving that humans
may have not always lived on one unique continent. Also, this has helped
scientists understand the distribution of different plant and animal species.
8. Compare and contrast science and scientific creationism on the
concept of evolution.
Scientific creationists oppose teaching evolution. Propose a biblically based
explanation for the origins of the universe and of life. Reject modern geology,
physics and chemistry.
Science involves research and actual data besides basing everything off of the
bible. The science perspective supports modern science and evolution.
Chapter Six | Human Variation
Race, has a meaning similar to “species” or “kind.”
Racism, an ideology that advocates the superior of certain races and the
inferiority of others, which leads to discrimination.
1. How do hemoglobin and melanin affect human skin color?
Melanin primarily determines the lightness or darkness of skin and is responsible
for variation of tan, brown and black skin color. The arrangement of melanocytes
and the amount of melanin they produce underlie variation in skin color.
Hemoglobin gives red blo