Fatty Acids, Glycerophospholipids, Cholesterol, Membrane Proteins, Glycosylation, Diffusion and Passive Transport

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Biochemistry & Molecular Bio.
David Gross

Ch 8 Study Guide 1) Know the general chemical structure of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and sphingomyelins at pH 7.4. • FattyAcids are long-chain carboxylic acids o can contain up to 24 C atoms (most common forms are 16 & 18) o can be saturated & unsaturated o • Triacylglycerols are the fats & oils found in animals & plants o the acyl groups of 3 fatty acids are esterified to the 3 hydroxyl groups of glycerol o ester bond result of condensation reaction o fatty acids can be same or different o hydrophobic nature & tendency to aggregate means cells store large amounts of this material w/o it interfering w/ other activities o • glycerophospholipids have glycerol backbone w/ fatty acyl groups esterified @ positions 1 & 2 & a phosphate derivative esterified @ position 3 o fatty acyl components vary o they’re amphipathic, hydrophobic head hydrophilic tail o • sphingomyelins have a sphingosine backbone but are similar to glycerophospholipids o second fatty acyl group attached via amide bond to N o 2) How does cholesterol affect membranes bilayers? • cholesterol’s rigid & planar ring system restricts movements of nearby acyl chains decreasing membrane fluidity • inserting cholesterol between membrane lipids prevents their close packing (crystallization) which increases membrane fluidity 3) Which glycerolipids have net charge? What charge? • it doesn’t really talk about this in the book, but they are amphipathic molecules so the have a charged or polar head and hydrophobic tail 4) Understand how the length and saturation state of the acyl chains affect the properties of the membranes (example: melting point, fluidity, curvature). • for curvature: o fatty acids w/ their single chain will cause an inward curvature b/c the head group is larger than the tail width o glycerophospholipids have a head about the same width as the 2 connected tails, no curvature o triacylglycerols w/ 3 chains have outward curvature b/c tails wider than head • melting point o longer chains have higher M.P. than shorter b/c van der Waals interactions btwn chains o saturated chains have higher M.P. than shorter for same reason 5) Understand the structural features of membrane proteins. What make them different from water-soluble proteins? What kind of secondary structure they adopt
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