Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle [MIDTERM 1 MATERIAL]

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Mark Huyler

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BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Rudolf Virchow: Cell theory: New cells arise by splitting pre-existing cells Embryos Meiosis vs. Mitosis - 2 types of cell division Gametes vs. Somatic Cells MITOTIC CELL DIVISION 12.1 How Do Cells Replicate? 1. copy the DNA 2. separate the copies 3. divide the cytoplasm into two complete cells The Cell Cycle: 4 Phases : 1 cycle is 24 hours - orderly sequence of events - eukaryotic cell - identical daughter cells Interphase - G1 Phase (2x longer than G2) - S Phase - G2 Phase M phase *Cytokinesis is not part of M phase EUKARYOTIC CELL REPLICATION Responsible for… - Growth - Wound Repair - Reproduction Asexual Reproduction COPY THE DNA- INTERPHASE + S PHASE Chromosome "colored body" - threadlike structures Wilhelm Waldeyer Histones DNA Interphase "There is more to the cell then just chromosomes" G1 Phase Unreplicated chromosomes: single relaxed chromatins S phase: DNA replication, part of interphase G2 Phase Replicated chromosomes: Replicated chromosomes, 2 sister chromatids DIVIDE THE COPIES- M PHASE M Phase "mitotic or meiotic phase" - dividing phase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase M Phase: Prophase "before phase" Condensed Replicated Chromosomes: sister chromatids held together by the centromere Formation of Spindle Apparatus MTOC "Microtubule-organizing centers": Anything that organizes microtubules Centrosome Centrioles Microtubules Polar microtubules: Two overlapping microtubules "pole to pole" Prophase: Chromosomes are condensing and the formation of the spindle apparatus is taking place. Centrosomes which contain two centrioles move to the opposite sides of the nucleus. These MTOCs now produce microtubules then eventually polar microtubules. M Phase Prometaphase "before middle-phase" Chromosomes have condensed Nuclear envelope: disintegrates Microtubules: attach to chromosomes Centromere 2 Kinetochore: structure on sister chromatids Kinetochore microtubules M Phase Metaphase "middle phase" Metaphase Plate Completion of Spindle Apparatus M Phase Anaphase "against phase" Sister chromatids are pulled apart Independent daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles M Phase Telophase "end phase" Nuclear envelope re-forms Chromosomes de-condense
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