Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle [MIDTERM 2 MATERIAL]

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Mark Huyler

Control of the Cell Cycle: "The cell cycle is regulated" G0 Phase "Post mitotic"- Cells stuck in G1 phase Environmental Factors - lack of nutrients, variation in cell cycle length Rapidly dividing cells Red Blood Cells Neural Cells Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF): Induces mitosis in eukaryotes Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk): Protein Kinase (activator) Cyclin: Regulator (inhibitor) MPF concentration increases: Interphase -> M Phase Cell-Cycle Checkpoints G1 Checkpoint - Cell size is adequate - nutrients are sufficient - social signals are present - DNA is undamaged MPF Activation G1 Phase: MPF subunits are phosphorylated. G0 State - Terminally differentiated cells G2 Checkpoint - Chromosomes have replicated successfully - DNA is undamaged - Active MPF MPF Cumulation G2 Phase: Cdk phosphate group drops off, Mitosis promoting kinase is active M-Phase Checkpoint (before cytokinesis) - Chromosomes have attached to spindle apparatus - Chromosomes have properly segregated and MPF MPF Deactivation Anaphase Cyclin degradation MPF is absent Tumor Suppressor Gene: "You don't want to replicate a mistake" Slow or stop the cell cycle p53- "the guardian of the genome" Detect damages in DNA, binds to DNA Calls in repair apoptosis: "boom" p53 Defect Cancer p53 Inactivity (something inactivates it) Mutation Proto-onchogenes: Cell-cycle regula
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