Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene [MIDTERM 2 MATERIAL]

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Huyler

Biology Study Guide Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene A Fundamental Attribute of Life Genetics: Focused on the inheritance of traits Middle of the 19th century Gregor Mendel Garden Peas Walter Sutton Theodor Boveri Chromosome Theory of Inheritance Chromosomes Genes Gregor Mendel Founded Genetics Genetic Model: Set of hypothesis that explain how a particular trait is inherited Particulate Inheritance The Principle of Segregation The Principle of Independent Assortment Discrete Traits Heredity: Parents to offspring Traits: Characteristics Selective Breeding The Garden Pea The Transmission of Traits: 2 Theories Blending inheritance: Blending mother + Father Inheritance of acquired characters: Parental traits are modified then passed onto the offspring The Garden Pea The First Model Organism in Genetics Model Organism Garden Pea: Pisum sativum Short Generation Time Easy to Grow Large # of seeds Mating is easy to control Traits are easily recognizable Self Pollination/ self-fertilize Cross-pollination/ cross: Cuts male organs Female Organ: Receives pollen Male Organ (Stamen): Produce pollen grains Traits Mendel Studied: Seed Shape, results consistent with rest. Phenotype- Observable features Seed Shape Seed color Pod shape Pod Color Flower Color Flower Pod Position Stem Length Pure line/ true-breeding lines- produce identical offspring Hybrid- cross of 2 different pure lines Mendel's Experiments with a Single Trait Single-trait crosses Round Seed pure line. Homozygous Wrinkle Seed pure line. Homozygous Parental Generation F1 Generation "First fillial" The Monohybrid Cross/ First Cross Monohybrid (single-trait) Cross: Mating between parents that carry two different genetic determinants for the same trait. Male parents: Round seed Female Parents: Wrinkle Seed F1: Round seed Self Fertilization F2: 3 Round, 1 Wrinkled Contrasts Blending Inheritance Hypothesis: "slightly wrinkled…" Mendel repeated this for all phenotypic traits 3:1 ratio Dominant and Recessive Traits Individuals carry 2 different genetic determinants/ 2 different alleles Recessive Dominant A Reciprocal Cross Mendel repeated everything reciprocally… talk about tedious Reciprocal Cross: A set of matings (mom,dad/ dad,mom) Identical Results Autosomes/ Autosomal Inheritance: Not sex-linked Particulate inheritance: Mendel's New Theory Hereditary determinants maintain their integrity from generation to generation. Instead of blending together or inheriting acquired characteristics, they act as discrete entities or particles. Genes, Alleles, and Genotypes Some Alleles are dominant while others are recessive. Round vs. Wrinkled Gene Genotype: Alleles found in an individual Dictates individual's phenotype Allele: 2 alternate versions of a gene The Principle of Segregation Alleles segregate during the production of gametes Meiosis I: Anaphase Meiosis II: Anaphase Haploid The Principle of Segregation Punnett Square Homozygous: Dominant, Recessive Heterozygous Mendel's Experiments with Two Traits Dihybrid cross- Mating between 2 traits that are heterozygous rryy x RRYY (yellow/green; round/wrinkled) Independent Assortment: (traits are on different chromosomes) Alleles don't stay together when gametes form Dependent Assortment (
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