Chapter 4: Nucleic Acids and the RNA World [MIDTERM 2 MATERIAL]

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Mark Huyler

Nucleic Acids and the RNA World Chapter 4​ RNA World Hypothesis "life began as a polymer - RNA" Nucleic Acid Nucleic Acid "polymer" Nucleotides "monomer" Phosphate Group 5' Carbon Sugar Nitrogenous (Nitrogen-containing) base Neucleoside "base + ribose" 5' Carbon Sugar Deoxyribonucleotides Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Sugar: Deoxyribose "lacking oxygen at 2' carbon" Ribonucleotides Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Sugar: Ribose "-OH at 2' carbon" Nitrogenous Bases Purines "big: nine atoms" A Adenine G Guanine Pyrimidines "small" C Cytosine U Uracil (RNA) T Thymine (DNA) Nucleotide Polymerization "Nucleic Acids form when nucleotides polymerize" Endergonic Process "absorbes energy" Catalyzed by Enzymes Phosphorylation: Add P groups to nucleotide "take off phosphate to add phosphate to nucleotide" Neucleoside triphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Spontaneous Hydrolysis: exergonic Polymerization Phosphodiester Linkage (bond) Ester Linkage (Oxygen) Diester Linkage Condensation Reaction 3' + 5' Carbon sugars are linked by phosphate group Sugar type: Ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic determines polymer: DNA or RNA DNA and RNA Strands are Directional Sugar-Phosphate backbone Polarity Unlinked 5' Carbon Unlinked 3' Carbon Primary Structure "nucleotide sequence" 5' - 3' Direction DNA, An Information-Containing Molecule Structured Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding Hydrophobic Interactions Phosphodiester Linkages Resistant to degradation Dependable Information Repository Poor Catalyst Less Reactive than RNA Stores biological information Growth and Reproduction of all cells Language: Sequence of bases DNA Structure and Function Primary Structure Secondary Structure Secondary Structure "Hydrogen bonding between nitrogenous bases" Chemists Structure of Nucl
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