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In prokaryotes and eukaryotes cell reproduction is similar in that it requires some kind of signal to proceed, DNA replication, careful separation of the DNA into two equal portions, and division of the cytoplasm. How is cell reproduction different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
a. In a eukaryotic organism, the signals for cell division are usually not related to the environment but to the function of the entire organism.
b. Eukaryotic cells constantly divide whenever environmental conditions are adequate and the cells are large enough.
c. The linear chromosomes in prokaryotes are constantly being updated.
d. Prokaryotic cell division requires cytokinesis before mitosis because of their small size.
e. The sexual phase of most prokaryotes (bacteria) is essential to the rapid cell division required for infection.
What does the name Cyclin Dependent Kinase stand for?
a. A protein important to the cell cycle that is dependent on DNA synthesis.
b. An enzyme that cuts DNA so that chromosomes can segregate.
c. An enzyme that phosphorylates other proteins using ATP only when the protein Cyclin is bound to the enzyme.
d. An enzyme that rolls along microtubules dragging a vesicle.
e. An enzyme that connects chromosomes to the spindle fiber.
The Cell Cycle is divided into Mitosis, Cytokinesis, and Interphase. Mitosis can be ordered into the following phases:
The Cell Cycle is divided into Mitosis, Cytokinesis, and Interphase. Interphase can be ordered into the following phases:
M2A1 Worksheet: Mitosis and Meiosis
A dog is a diploid organisms and has 39 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 78), where n = 39 chromosomes from each parent. Use this example to answer the following question regarding chromosomal number.
How many chromosomes are present in the somatic cell?
What do they look like?
What are they âdoingâ in G1 of this phase?
What is happening in the S phase?
What is happening in the G2 phase?
What follows G2 phase in a somatic cell?
What follows G2 phase in a gamete cell?
Number of chromosomes in the parent cell.
Number of chromatids in the parent cell.
Number of chromosomes in the daughter cell.
Number of chromatids in the daughter cell.
How many daughter cells are produced?
Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid?
How many cell divisions take place?
In what type of cell does this division occur?
Number of chromosomes in each Meiosis I daughter cell.
Number of chromatids in each Meiosis I daughter cell.
Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid at the end of Meiosis 1?
Number of chromosomes in the âparentâ cell (which is a daughter cell from Meiosis I).
Number of chromatids in the âparentâ cell.
Number of chromosomes in each Meiosis II daughter cell.
Number of chromatids in each Meiosis II daughter cell.
Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid at the end of Meiosis II?
Which phase or phases of Meiosis account for the genetic variability among the daughter cells? Howâ¦ what happens in this phase to create the diversity?
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosisâ¦..
How many daughter cells result from Mitosis? Are they diploid or haploid?
How many daughter cells result from Meiosis? Are they diploid or Haploid?
Cell structures and function: Match each organelle to its function:
Lysosome 1. Lipid synthesis
Rough ER 2. Houses DNA
Nucleus 3. Energy extraction
Smooth ER 4. Dismantles debris
Golgi apparatus 5. detoxification
Mitochondria 6. Protein synthesis
Peroxisome 7. Processes secretions
What is the function of checkpoint proteins in the cell cycle?
How can all of a personâs cells contain exactly the same genetic material, yet specialize as bone cells, nerve cells, muscle cells and connective tissues?
What are the 3 primary germ layers?
Briefly, in one or two sentences, distinguish between
a bacterial cell and a eukaryotic cell
interphase and mitosis
mitosis and apoptosis
an autosome and a sex chromosome
homologous pair of chromosomes and a sister chromatid
centromere and centriole
chromosome and chromatid
monozygotic and dizygotic twins
allele and gene
Chapter 6: How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy
What is the difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?
What are the products of cellular respiration?
What does pyruvate do?
The conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called what?
If ATP accumulates in a cell, what happens?
A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because the drug inhibits what?
As a result of glycolysis, there is a net gain of ________ ATP(s).
Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in what?
Chapter 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food
What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and thus sustain themselves without consuming organic molecules derived from other organisms?
What is an example of a photoautotroph?
What is the origin of chloroplasts?
In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called what?
The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from what?
What is the use and production of CO2 in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Know the parts of the chloroplast. Which structure in the chloroplast represents the thylakoid membrane?
What molecules are reactants of photosynthesis?
What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis?
Why are most plants green?
Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance
What is called the creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg?
How do eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes?
Prior to mitosis, each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consists of a pair of identical structures are called what?
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
What occurs during interphase?
What is the process called by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells?
What is the phase of mitosis during which the mitotic spindle begins to form?
During which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope re-form?
What feature of plant cell division distinguishes it from animal cell division?
What features likely accounts for the difference between plant and animal cell cytokinesis?
What must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally?
Chapter 9: Patterns of Inheritance
Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by what type of alleles?
What is the difference between genotypes and phenotypes?
What are the individual features of all organisms?
What does the chromosome theory of inheritance state?
What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male?
The sex chromosome complement of a normal human female is what?
How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?
What is the gene located on a sex chromosome called?
Why are sex-linked conditions more common in men than in women?
Chapter 12: DNA Technology and Genomics
How long has Biotechnology been around?
What do restriction enzymes do?
What are "Sticky ends"?
What is the best definition of a genomic library?
What is a nucleic acid probe?
The only cells that can correctly attach sugars to proteins to form glycoprotein products are what?
How does a vaccine work?
What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?
The polymerase chain reaction relies upon unusual, heat-resistant ________ that were isolated from bacteria living in hot springs.
Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their what?