U.S. History since 1876 Final [REVIEW] - I got a 92% in the course

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HISTORY 151 SPRING 2013 Final Exam Study Guide ***THE FINALEXAM IS WORTH 200 POINTS Identifications: There will be 15 on the exam, and you will have to answer 10. A complete answer is approximately 3-5 sentences long, and defines the term/person/event, as well as explains its historical significance. Each question is worth 5 points each, for a total of 50 points. The identifications will be pulled from the following list, and only cover material from the midterm to the final. 1. Marshall Plan: • Truman’s foreign policy Integral part of containment Provide economic assistance to all European nations including the Soviet Union if they joined the US in drafting a plan for post war recovery 16 Western European countries accepted the plan money – Soviets didn’t Significance: accepting US money would aid in reconstruction and avoid economic problems; US believed giving money would prevent nations from falling to communism 2. NSC-68: Memo from National Security Council: thorough review of American foreign policy Determined the US couldn’t rely on other nations to take the lead in resisting communism – US on it’s own US must establish a firm/active leadership in the noncommunist world US must stop communist expansion anywhere it occurs, regardless of strategic/economic value of the land in question If communism on tiny insignificant island, still stop communism Significance: Reason why US gets involved in Korea Rationale for involvement 3. Massive retaliation: the defense doctrine of the Eisenhower administration, which promised “instant, massive retaliation” with nuclear weapons in response to Soviet aggression Stockpiled weapons to look scary “Brinksmanship” – push them to the brink, extract promises and then pull back US stockpile nuclear weapons and announce that they would be pointed at key spaces = scare into not spreading communism Significance: produces anxiety amongAmerican public due to MutuallyAssured Destruction in which the Soviet Union would fire back, intimidates communist countries 4. Massive resistance: the rallying cry of southern segregationists who pledged to oppose the integration of the schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, the tactics included legislation, demonstrations and violence Southern social movement to resist Brown decision and avoid desegregating schools because they were racist and believed that it was a state decision Significance: led to direct state confrontation with federal authority, led to Central Rock High School 5. A. Philip Randolph: brotherhood of sleeping car porters, threatened a march on Washington to end job discrimination and desegregate troops during WWII, part of the Double V campaign Significance: scares FDR because he didn’t know how to justify the war, leads to order that desegregates the national defense industry 6. Double V Campaign: connection of the fight against racism to the fight against fascism Significance: African American’s against the war because they were not being granted freedoms at home so why should they fight for freedoms abroad, FDR didn’t know how to justify it 7. Brown v. the Board of Education Midpoint of civil rights movement Supreme Court Decision: segregation of public schools on basis of race is unconstitutional Argued that school segregation inflicted unacceptable damage on those it affected regardless of quality of the separate schools in question “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” Separate schools produced a feeling of inferiority in black children which deprived them of equal protections from the 14 amendment Significance: rejected the decision made in Plessey v. Ferguson, lead to Brown 2, which laid out rules for how to implement the Brown decision (communities must work to desegregate schools with all deliberate speed) and recognized thatAfricanAmerican’s were being deprived of equal protections as stated in the equal protections clause 8. SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference, MLK President • Group of older preachers Significance: peaceful approach to the Civil Rights Movement 9. SNCC Student non-violent coordinating committee: emerged from the sit-ins Broadened the direct-action approach and favored direct because it attracted wide public notice especially in the North Civil Rights on all flanks (legal, small towns) White resistance keeps up (assault); Southerners fighting for their way of life and blacks won more supporters Significance: movement from the older Civil Rights Movement to a movement led by young people (students), eventually become more radicalized and kick all white members out 10. Orval Faubus: governor of Little RockArkansas who refused to stop white mob from blocking the desegregation at Central High School • Eisenhower sent in federal troops to protect, keep the peace and to ensure integration, troops stayed for the year and all the public high schools eventually closed for the year Significance: state vs. federal authority; because he was the governor, example of massive resistance 11. Rosa Parks Activist NWACP Montgomery Bus Boycott: others had done the same thing but Rosa Parks was a better example Politics of respectability Significance: politics of respectability: gaining sympathy because of the type of people who were fighting for Civil Rights 12. Montgomery Bus Boycott a. Entire year of 1956 b. MLK Jr. rises to national prominence (SCLC) c. Hurts the bus system and white businesses in downtown Significance: led to the Supreme Court declaring that Jim Crowe laws were unconstitutional and the Civil RightsAct 13. CORE: congress on racial equality working to desegregate bus travel, students, desegregated public facilities • Freedom rides 14. Freedom Rides 796 1960: Boynton v. Virginia: Supreme Court ruled that segregation in bus/train/airport was unconstitutional – South ignored the ruling May 4, 1961: CORE volunteers (Black and white college students, housewives and nuns) boarded Greyhound buses traveling from DC to the South and sat in bus terminals Desegregated waiting rooms in Virginia easily, but faced more resistance in the deep south SC/Alabama: beaten up by whites BirminghamAlabama: police commissioner T. Eugene “Bull” Connor knew the Freedom Riders were coming and contacted the KKK to tell them they had 15 minutes alone with them to assault them before the police showed up and joined in and arrested the CORE members Significance: desegregation in Virginia without violence, JFK didn’t do much in response 15. Central High School (Little Rock,Arkansas) Federal courts had ordered desegregation White mob blocked the desegregation order by blockading entrances etc. Orval Faubus: governor, refused to stop the obstruction Eisenhower sent federal troops to protect the high school and to keep the peace/ensure integration Troops stayed for the whole school year Little Rock officials came up with a new plan – closed all of the public high schools rather than integrating White kids sent to private schools, AfricanAmericans either don’t go to school or get some education from a church or community center, poor white don’t get to go to school Significance: direct state defiance of federal authority and shows the response to Brown v. Board of Education 16. George Wallace: stood against Civil Rights Movement, refused to desegregate University ofAlabama and said “Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.” Significance: there was a chance he could have become President because he had the vote of white southerners 17. “Bull” Connor: knew the Freedom Riders were coming and contacted the KKK to tell them they had 15 minutes alone with them to assault them before the police showed up and joined in and arrested the CORE members (Freedom Rides) and supervised violence to break up peaceful SCLC marches Significance: he was a police commissioner, shows police brutality, and even high prominent figures were acting on racism 18. Bay of Pigs 1,600 guerilla warriors landed at the Bay of Pigs and stormed the beach Locals didn’t join, Castro’s forces killed/captured invaders, 300 ran away back home to their families US had to negotiate for 1200 captives, pay ransom $10 million in medical supplies Significance: made JFK more receptive to creative anti-communism strategies (to be implied in Vietnam) and intensified JFK’s vendetta against Castro because he had to redeem his image 19. Cuban Missile Crisis CIAtells JFK that spy planes had confirmed that Soviet Union installed IRBM nuclear missiles which could reach the US in less than 10 minutes US had IRBMs in Europe pointed at Soviets JFK announced a naval blockade Pushing the Soviets to respond – brinksmanship Soviet ships approach US blockade then turn around Khruschev (Soviet Premier) offers to remove the missiles if the US didn’t invade Cuba, second message demanding US to remove nuclear weapons from Turkey JFK responded to the first message not to invade Bobby Kennedy privately told Soviet Union when crisis resolved that the nuclear weapons would be removed from Turkey, GB and Italy – put weapons on a submarine instead JFK announces missiles removed = crisis over Significance: most dangerous episode of the Cold War, closest to mutually assured destruction, brings threat of Worldwide War into forefront, leads to nuclear test-ban 20. Project Mongoose Ordered CIA to disrupt the Cuban economy and discredit Castro government Burn down Cuban sugar cane fields (part of growth process anyways), blowing up factories Attempted to kill Castro by lacing his cigars with poison, poison his food (his food testers died), tried to get his beard to fall out and explosives in clam
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