U.S. History since 1876 [NOTES] - I got a 92% in the course

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01/30/2013 Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution 2 main goals Incorporate the newly freed slaves into the nation Reintegrate the defeated south Immediately after the Civil War “experiment” – not well thought out plan The History of Emancipation Brought end to the Civil War Slaves forced the issue themselves by running away from plantations and turning themselves into Union army generals No longer slave but also not a free citizen April 1862: Slavery banned in D.C. July: Confiscation Act Freed all slaves owned by persons of rebellion against the US. Did not emancipate slaves in southern states under Union control (New Orleans) Lincoln Resisted emancipation during war because he thought it would hurt the war effort by dividing the country Wanted slavery to be done away with state-level laws Believed that slave owners should be compensated for losing their slaves Wanted the government to provide for people who willingly left the US Summer 1862: Government had to adopt an antislavery policy for military reasons – needed the support of Liberal Europe End September 1862: Union army victory at Antietam: gives Lincoln the opportunity to make Emancipation Proclamation public January 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamation is in effect All slaves in areas of rebellion shall be then, there forward and forever free Didn’t automatically free all slaves Areas not in rebellion (Missouri) Areas controlled by federal government Slaves hear the news and run away to areas they can be free which creates a policy issue: thousands without food, clothes and shoes March 1863: still in war Freedman’s Inquiry Commission Redistribute land in the south to all newly freed slaves and poor whites 40 acres and a mule: Seize plantations controlled by those in rebellion and split the land into 40 acre family farms Theory: slavery never again in the agricultural south – doesn’t happen Didn’t work because the confederacy was running out of money because they had been printing their own money to pay for the war (creates inflation) Great Britain financers willing to take cotton as payment instead of gold = Lincoln cant do 40 acre/mule if need to produce all that cotton Gives amnesty to rebels and their land back (doesn’t give slaves back) if they promise to be loyal Freedman’s Bureau of War Department Problem: southerners need laborers/freed slaves need work = freed slaves move back to plantations as wage workers Established to supervise contracts between employers and wage workers Wage contracts Set up schools – for children and adult freed slaves, mixed racial Helped freed slaves reunite with their families April 1865: War ends, Lincoln killed Reintegrating the Defeated South Temporary plan for dealing with the confederacy All southerners except high confederate leaders allowed back into the nation if they took a loyalty oath When 10% of those who voted in 1860 election had taken the oath, that state could set up its own state government - low qualification after treason New state governments had to be republican type: representative, had to recognize the permanent freedom of slaves, had to set up schools for blacks Didn’t require giving blacks the right to vote 13 Amendment: abolishes slavery problem: need 2/3 states to ratify to Constitution – cant get confederate states Andrew Johnson assumes Presidency Democrat (Lincoln was Republican) Lincoln chose him as his VP because he a border state southerner from Tennessee, he was anti south aristocrats/plantations and spoke for poor whites Problem: hated blacks and started speaking for poor whites over blacks Interested in not punishing the south May 1865 Johnson’s Plan: Believed that most southern voters would take a loyalty oath, so he got rid of it Any confederate member including property owners who made over $20,000 were pardoned Allowed more confederate rebels back into southern state governments/allowed them to be politicians December 1865: Congress back in D.C. Presidential Reconstruction Southern states all have an organized government and most have ratified the 13 th amendment Republicans didn’t like new members of congress from the south = congress divided (North vs. South) Presidential Reconstruction didn’t work Radical republicans were demanding immediate and absolute racial equality and wanted to guarantee freed slaves their basic rights Moderate republicans would not agree with political and social equality such as voting and desegregation Democrats (former confederates) liked presidential reconstruction because they didn’t care about the freed slaves 3 main reasons Presidential Reconstruction didn’t work the 13 amendment annulled the 3/5 compromise that was in the constitution and stated that a black person was only 3/5 of a white person for proportion of representatives in the house th the 13 amendment made slaves a full person instead of 3/5 meaning that southern states could send more representatives to congress than the north could southerners voted for former confederate leaders = former confederate leaders (generals and VP of confederacy) now in senate republicans very angered by this “Black Codes” at the time the only law was that slavery was abolished but free people were still in between slaves and citizens southern governments pass a series of laws designed to control the former slave population 1866 – all southern states (except NC) adopted the Black Codes Progressive measures Right to testify in court and to sue or to be sued Right to hold property Recognition of marriages Repressive measures Restrictions on property rights Permitted employer brutality Restriction on mobility: any white person could stop and ask to see a black persons labor contract (freed people had to be employed) if they didn’t have it a white person could arrest them If black person was in jail without a labor contract they were hired out at an auction and a white person could pay their jail fine in exchange for a period of work Vagrancy: homelessness/loitering Vigilantism: all white people deputized to arrest blacks Antimisegination law: illegal for black to marry white person until mid 1960s Summer 1866 Congressional Reconstruction (Radical Reconstruction) Radical republicans take over reconstruction 14 amendment: grants newly freed slaves significant political rights equal protections clause: all citizens guaranteed equal protection th south didn’t like the 14 amendment and continued to persecute blacks 1867 1 Reconstruction Act divided confederacy into 5 military districts (excluding Tennessee because they ratified th 14 amendment) controlled by general in order to get rid of military rule the south had to guarantee black voting rights by th ratifying the 14 amendment 2 Reconstruction Act military authorities required to register voters and supervise elections to prevent confederates from disallowing blacks to vote didn’t work because southerners just didn’t vote to keep blacks from voting After the 2 Reconstruction Acts Made people vote by saying that the majority would decide the state government Ex.) if 7 freed slaves were the only ones to vote they would decide the state government = whites didn’t like that so they started to vote again The South finds loopholes to prevent blacks from voting Property qualifications: have to own a certain amount of property to vote (hurts blacks/poor whites) Literacy tests: must pass the test to vote, gave blacks a difficult passage to read (Odyssey) and because freed slaves had never been taught to read they could not pass the tests, gave whites parables/scripture to read and they passed the test because they had grown up reading those things = unfair tests Conditions of Birth (Grandfather Clause): if your grandfather was eligible to vote prior to the Civil War then you could vote – almost 0 blacks How was that legal? They didn’t necessarily say that blacks couldn’t vote so it was not directly going against the 15 amendment Enforcement Acts Northerners angered by the southerners disrupting voting rights Radical republicans put together enforcement acts Penalties for those who interfered with voting rights Southerners didn’t care Voting rights were not won until 1965 – 100 years later July 1870 – Georgia (last southern state) is brought back to the Union th Enough states ratify the 14 amendment Johnson impeached Ulysses S. Grant becomes President (hero of Union army) 15 Amendment no state can deny the right to vote to anyone on account of race/color/previous condition of servitude = black men can vote first time race was recognized within the Constitution did not give women (black or white) voting rights until 1920 1877 Election Corrupt Bargain: between Democrats and Republicans Hayes became President in exchange that Congress pulled all military out of the South = end of federal protection of the rights of black southerners Not having federal oversight led to things such as the Jim Crowe laws Political rule returns to white southern men who call themselves “the redeemers” and restore white “home rule” meaning only white men would vote Redemption = period following the Reconstruction White Supremacy Calls on majority of the group to act to preserve white supremacy Violence against blacks to instill fear Tell blacks they will protect them from the poor whites Tell poor whites at least they aren’t black = energizes poor whites to attack blacks Goal: keep blacks and poor whites separate in post-reconstruction so they don’t realize how alike they are and try to overthrow the social order Lynching Tool redeemers used to keep control in the south No one kept track of statistics – hard to track Carried out by white officials as a means of social/political/economic control Lynch mob selects target to bring to jail with the excuse that he raped a white woman, staged a mock trial with officers and Klan members in the jury, “Judge Lynch”, put man through a fake trial and when he was found guilty he was sentenced to death, lynching’s announced on front page of newspaper Lynch in center of town and leave the body as a symbol Domestic terrorism: used the threat of murder to control blacks with fear Blacks stopped trying to vote/own land Great Migration: blacks begin to leave the south for the urban/industrialized north Looking for better education, safety and rights Approx. 5,000 people lynched but not reported – federal government didn’t do anything about it and lynching is still not a federal crime 01/30/2013 DeFacto – used for cultural/social segregation Immigration to the US 1840s to 1890 1840-50s: 4 million “Old stock” Anglo-Saxon 1860-90s 10 millions “old stock” DeJure Segregation = segregation by law 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson: Plessy was a light skinned black man who tried to board a train in Louisiana in a white train car, testing the 14 amendment, was arrested. Supreme court ruled that if a state provided separate but equal accommodations it did not violate the Constitution, held until 1954 signaled the end of federal protection in the South scramble to set up separate but equal facilities Who is an American? Immigration increase Mostly Irish Germans, Scandinavians (North Europe) Head to Midwest – buy large family farms, had more money than the Irish who were in cities 1890-1917: 18 mill “new stock” immigrants Italians, Eastern European Jews 1890: Federal government takes over immigration by creating the Bureau of Immigration each state previously had individual immigration laws looking at immigration abuse, people stole their bags (con artists) federal government intervenes 01/30/2013 1892: Ellis Island opened first federal immigrant landing depot 4 main reasons for exclusion from US poverty poor health criminal background radical political background On the ship 1 class 2 class steerage: cheapest tickets Wealthy immigrants: assumed that because the wealthy could afford a 1 or 2 class nd ticket that they didn’t fit into any of the exclusion categories because they had money = they were processed on the boat, upon arrival they could vote Steerage passengers: assumed something was wrong with the poor people, ferried to Ellis Island, given many tests by officials at top of stairs to determine eligibility Trachoma: highly contagious eye disease similar to pink eye and could blind a person, people were screened by having their eyelids flipped up to look for marks. Most people had never been to a doctor because they were farmers, marked TC on coat if they had marks and were sent to a special line Pregnant women were sent to a hospital to give birth before they entered the country = free medical care Sent to hospital buildings for full medical exam and turned away if they had a communicable disease = free medical care Marked LPC for “public charge” if they didn’t have $15 upon arrival they were concerned about allowing underclass in who would just seek charity Insane people: marked coat with X if looked insane (could just be nervous) pulled aside for mental tests Men: asked to draw a diamond and their drawing looked inaccurate because many peasants had never held a pencil before – not really insane just cultural assumptions “Last Honors to Bunny”: test for children under the age of 16, showed a picture and expected children to say it was a painting of a bunny funeral but the immigrant children said they were cooking it for dinner, example of cultural differences (farmers) 01/30/2013 Why did people immigrate to the US? “Push and Pull” Factors Industrialization in Europe: dislocates laboring classes, mass produced things cheaper meant that artisans lost their business, artisans moved to cities looking for work Commercialization of agriculture in Europe: small family farms not as profitable, moving off farms to cities Violence/oppressive governments: Pale of Settlement in Russia: Jews confined, not permitted to own land/attend Russian schools 1881: Czar of Russia murdered, it was believed that a young Jewish man murdered him so the Russian government encouraged Russians to persecute Jews Pogram = massacre supported or called for by the government Jews flee to US Italians: tax money was being taken from Sicilians but not helping Sicily, Sicilians being persecuted, flee to US History of transiency: since people already moved to European cities they were already uprooted so going to US wasn’t a big deal 1869 Massive Chinese laborer migration from transcontinental railroad to San Francisco already a large number of Irish workers there who became angered that the Chinese took their jobs because they worked for less money Working Mans Party started by the Irish anti-Chinese sentiment from landowners and workers because they wanted Chinese out of California = Pograms (organized state violence) 1882 Congress responds by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act banned Chinese immigration into the US for 10 years, banned Chinese already in the US from becoming a citizen and from bringing their families into the US 1892: Act renewed for extra 10 years 1902: permanent ban until 1965 different picture of the Ellis Island time period The Guilded Age post civil war – industrialization, urbanization, railroad industry rich become richer, poor still suffering battles between capital and labor 01/30/2013 Labor Strikes: owners sent police detectives to kill the employees on strike Hay Market Massacre: in Chicago, only cared about the cop who died Homestead strike 1892 Increase of migration/immigration: 18 million new people = rich happy because they had more people to exploit Crumbling of city infrastructures Rise of political machines (Tammany Hall runs democratic party) Progressive Era Educated professionals dedicated to bringing about social change Middle class believed society was comprised of a web of human relations – if one suffered they all suffered Held the “idle rich” responsible Motivated by a desire to help the less fortunate Believed that Purposeful human intervention was necessary to fix societies ills They were the ones that had to do the intervening Power of state and the ability to solve non-scientific problems scientifically ex.) terrible housing = take inventory = solve scientifically First time in US history that educated people helped the poor Techniques: photography (Riis, Hine), reports, public exhibits, speeches, journalism, undercover investigation, social sciences Thought that the public would help if they showed them the problem Muckrakers/muckraking Journalism: published things to bring about social change Ida B. Wells: wrote about lynching George Turned: concerned with poor women turning to prostitution, wrote “The Daughters of the Poor” calls for changes in US policing 01/30/2013 Settlement House Movement Community center in poor/immigrant neighborhoods Staffed by volunteers – young college educated women, appealed because most professions didn’t hire women First originated in London 1886: first in US 1889: Jane Adams opened the Hull House in Chicago – offered classes in English, sewing and cooking, daycare center, laundry, employment bureau Hull House Maps and Papers: documented horrible conditions and took the study to the city of Chicago Henry Ford taught cooking courses to his employees wives Triangle Shirt Waist Factory: fire that killed many women workers, resulted in new fire/building codes Progressive Conclusion Created mixed public/private systems 1914 WWI 1917 immigration from Europe almost totally shutoff due to WWI, jobs given to African Americans, push for Civil Rights anti-immigration movement starts, radicalism, strict immigration laws 1924: Immigration and Naturalization Act: establishes quotas, only 3% of those in 1890 US census from any country may come to the US after 1924, problem was that 1890 was when immigration was at its height, designed to eliminate Asian/South Europe immigration Woman Suffrage 1917: sinking of the ship Lusitania (American’s die) Zimmerman telegram intercepted – German ambassador to Mexico said that in the event that the US enters war against Germany, Mexico should attack American southwest intercepted y British and given to the US = US joins WWI Wilson says that WWI will make the world safe for democracy – false Women/African Americans make the claim that if there is no democracy at home why fight for it abroad? 01/30/2013 Early History American Women’s Suffrage Association Active through the Civil War Founded by Lucy Stone who married without her husbands last name, Frederick Douglass Gradual approach Each state should pass a women’s voting law National Women’s Suffrage Association Founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton More radical Seneca Falls Convention (1848): Women claimed that all men and women were equal following the doctrine of natural rights, American prefers strict gender roles 15 Amendment: NWSA opposed because thought it put women under slaves – kept them apart from AWSA National American Women’s Suffrage Association (1890) Merged together NWSA and AWSA Founded by Alice Stone Blackwell (Lucy Stone’s daughter) Moved focus from equal rights to a focus on voting rights Draws on old argument about women’s nature: need women voters because women are different from men Said women would use female morality to clean out government corruption If women could vote there would never be war again wanted to protect women’s own special interests (suggests that men weren’t presently protecting women’s special interests) women would vote as mothers (vote on wages) based on special female qualities not equal rights or justice said that women deserved the right to vote because they were exploited by their husbands people opposed the women’s right to vote because it was believed that they would abolish alcohol female voters would restore social order of the nation 01/30/2013 Jane Adams: “Civic Housekeeping” To give women the right to vote would improve the electorate – referring to black people Black Women: claimed they needed the right to vote because black men had squandered their right to vote by trading it for food and money White women not helping black women 1893: NAWSA passed resolution 1899: L. Jackson (African American) tried to join the NAWSA, tried to get them to condemn segregated train seats white women said women are disenfranchised/helpless and can’t do that Susan B. Anthony announced that women’s suffrage and the “black question” are 2 separate causes National Association of Colored Women Local suffrage organizations Whore white dresses to represent purity and had parades As suffrage grew, so did resistance (from liquor dealers, machine politicians and the Catholic Church) Most resistance was in the East Coach (MA, RI, NY) – immigrants National Woman’s Party Founded by Alice Paul 1916 More radical Borrowed English woman’s suffrage tactics (fighting for the right to vote at the same time) Said Woodrow Wilson was directly responsible Picketed the White House, got arrested and put in jail went on hunger strike in jail and were force fed “Iron Jawed Angels” NAWSA: Act good during the war: knit socks for soldiers 01/30/2013 Support war and President: believed that once war was over Wilson would give women voting rights 1917: women earned voting rights in 8 more states western states had already been given voting rights for land owning purposes right to vote in NY, Arkansas (first southern state) and Michigan (very populous) th 1918: 19 Amendment – constitutional amendment for women’s voting rights Wilson encouraged the states to ratify States propose an amendment to the amendment: south wanted the amendment for white women only – Alice Paul briefly supports th August 1920: Tennessee becomes 36 state to ratify Young legislator (24 yrs. Old) spoke to his mom who changed his vote and became the deciding supporting vote “Old Crowd” Negros W.E.B. Dubois: wrote editorial for African Americans to set aside grievances and to help with the war effort (similar to NAWSA) African Americans were angered African American soldiers in segregated units; argued why fight for democracy abroad when no equality at home (same argument as women) The Great Migration Movement of African American’s from urban US south to urban US North because northern factories needed workers during war better schools, more political rights and equality 1917 – East St. Louis Illinois 12,000 blacks migrated to East St. Louis: whites didn’t react well Aluminum Orr: labor dispute – hired African American’s for lower wages while white workers were on strike (blacks were strike breakers) Union refused to let blacks in = blacks didn’t respect the picket line Newspaper: tries to create scandal by spreading rumors Says African American’s were invited to East Saint Louis to fill republican voting rolls 01/30/2013 African American’s were arming themselves and planning to overthrow East Saint Louis Car drives through black neighborhood and opens fire = begins open violence to blacks for 36 hours 39 blacks killed/9 whites killed = worst race murder in US so far 7100 blacks move out of East Saint Louis 12 blacks/9 whites charged with murder/homicide Dubois and commissioner call the riot a pogrom (organized massacre) 1917-1921: 40 large race riots in US 1919 Summer: 25 race riots = “Red Summer” Chicago: turning point in African American political consciousness Segregated beaches: 11 year old black boy swimming at a colored beach was pulled by the current into the white beach. An adult white man threw a rock at the boy, which hit him in the head and he began to drown. Blacks tried to save the boy but were stopped and beaten and the boy drowns. Incident created a two-sided fight between Irish whites and blacks at a south side park in Chicago = new consciousness = first time blacks fought back “New Negro” movement born: 2-sided fight meant that blacks weren’t just victims anymore because they fought back Younger African Americans fight for Civil Rights Marcus Garvey: Jamaican, started the Universal Negro Improvement Association Hoped to start an international movement of black people back to Africa Picked Ethiopia as the place to take blacks back to – didn’t consult with Ethiopian government Negro Factory Association: said blacks should own their own businesses and only shop there Black Star Liner: purchased an ocean liner, which he wanted to be the boat that the blacks would take back to Africa 1923: FBI didn’t like Garvey, said he was the most dangerous negro in America, arrested him for mail fraud lasting legacy: embraced black is beautiful Malcolm X’s parents were very active in UNIA A. Phillip Randolph and Chandler Jones 01/30/2013 Wrote “Messenger” magazine Black socialists Supported all voting rights Against WWI Called for unemployment insurance and for public works projects during the economic decline Randolph: organized March on Washington Movement President of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: African American men who worked as butlers on trains: middle class, traveled the country = economic activism Malcolm X was a train car porter in his young age Messenger magazine gets them arrested Accused of publishing radical/sadistic material Couldn’t publish radical material because no protection on the first amendment, during war the President could suspend 1 amendment rights, acts passed during WWI against radical material publication Judge let them go saying someone else must have written it because colored men weren’t smart enough to write that magazine 1920s Jazz Age wealthy whites challenging old morals, women in college, men and women of all races together in jazz clubs 1923: positivity falls apart economy down/unstable big industries: automobile and construction US going towards Great Depression Rest of the world had economic problems in the wake of WWI Germany was supposed to be paying off war debt but was printing their own money Great Depression 1931: world in Great Depression 01/30/2013 no one saw the Great Depression coming because they had been in the uplifting Jazz Age Causes of the Great Depression 1. Stock market crash (speculation) • banks had been extending credit to ordinary Americans for the 1 time in US history • because so many people than ever before were involved in the market, the crash had more/worse consequences 2. Lack of Diversification of the Economy • No other strong industries (besides automobile and construction) to take up the slack 3. Maldistribution of Purchasing Power • End 1920s: rich had a lot of money, but others didn’t have enough money to buy the goods that were being produced and keep the economy growing 4. Domestic Credit Crisis (banks calling in debt) • Small banks made unwise loans, farmers buying loans for tools/land, this caused an overproduction surplus, banks call in loans and farmers can’t pay them = banks seized farmer’s land 5. International Debt Crisis • Banks called in debts from Europe = Great Depression stretched to Europe Compression of the Labor Market st 1 to lose jobs: white men in skilled labor positions. When white men lost their jobs they took the jobs of women and black men. When men lost jobs they would sometimes become a hobo or run away to avoid not being able to support their family White women in “pink collar” (teachers) positions were fired and men were hired Bread winner ideology: it was okay to fire women because they had a man at home who was working to support the family – not true during the Great Depression because men were getting fired too Black men in unskilled labor positions were fired and white men were hired Black men became underemployed instead of unemployed Took less hours for lower wages = couldn’t get unemployment aid from the government Exploitation = like slavery? 01/30/2013 Black women in domestic labor jobs fired and white women hired White people who could still afford domestic help fired black women and hired white women because they thought they were doing a good thing by giving a white woman a job To apply for relief you had to be unemployed – white men got unemployment aid more than black men “Illegal Economy” Prohibition People begin to bootleg (transport) alcohol between Canada and US Made wine in bathtubs Religious exception to prohibition = some priests with access to sacramental wine began to bootleg alcohol 1928-1932 Herbert Hoover President Last President who didn’t spend money The “Public Enemy” Era How people displayed their displeasure ex.) to Herbert Hoover raising taxes 1930 – Bankers become villains because banks calling in debts = bank robbers become heroes Bonnie and Clyde: part of bank robbing gang, botched robberies, robbed gas stations and small stores, gave money to people in the town after robbing a bank and would get hide outs in return, murdered by police Bonnie: would write and send poems to the newspapers of the towns they had just robbed John Dillinger: underground crime, inspired FBI to do what they do, ratted out by brothel-keeper, murdered in Chicago in front of Biograph Theater Nation of Cinemaniacs People began to love the movies (Bonnie did too) because they were a way to escape their bad lives 01/30/2013 85 million movie tickets sold a week – only 115 million people in US = a lot of movie goers tickets were only 25 cents = an affordable luxury 3-4 hours of film, live music and shows DeMilles “Cleopatra” people liked costume films: unrealistic/escapist Child stars: Shirley Temple – no child labor laws = cheap to make movie with a child star Sports during Great Depression More participant sports (dance/bike marathons) Roller derby Cosmetic Industry still thrived during Great Depression Lipstick Theory: people could muster up the money to buy things that would lift their spirits Movies made women want to look good = buy cosmetics 1932 – FDR elected The New Deal: domestic reform program Restoring confidence in American government/economy/President Initiates weekly radio address “Fireside Chats” 1 President to use the radio = reached out to ordinary Americans Bank holidays: restore faith in banks/economy, shut down every US bank for 4 days while Congress met to discuss the bank situation Emergency Banking Act: protect larger banks from being dragged down by smaller banks Treasury department inspected all banks before they reopened Federal aid was given to troubled banks 01/30/2013 1 billion dollars flowed back into the banks in 1 month people had been withdrawing their money and hiding it in their yards because they didn’t trust the banks 1933 – Glass-Steagall Act FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation established Federal government ensures deposit Transferred power to federal reserve banks Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) Police stock market 1933 – Prohibition repealed before repealed: legalized production of beer due to lipstick theory that people would find money to buy beer to get drunk and not think about their problems Chapter 23: American Horizons A New Deal, 1931-1939 E.J. Sullivan Despondent citizen Published a parody of the 23 psalm Anxiety about economy Ridiculed/blamed Hoover “Letter to Mrs. Roosevelt” written by Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Hannon of Kansas 01/30/2013 show gratitude – given health, happiness and courage impact of Farm Security Administration on their lives described hardships before New Deal – debt, dead grass National Labor Relations Act Right of workers to organize unions and bargain with employers Millions of workers joined unions Outlined what was unfair employer behavior “A Monthly Check to You” Poster encouraged Americans to sign up for their first Social Security card promise of a dignified retirement and assistance to disabled workers said who was eligible, beginning at age 65, information could be obtained at the post office Photos of Migratory Workers in California Dorothea Lange Farm Security Administration hired talented photographers to chronicle the lives of workers/farmers/laborers who were facing difficult times Chapter 24 – Of The People; A Great Depression and a New Deal (1929-1940) Margaret Mitchell: Gone With the Wind wrote about triumph over hardships, even during the depths of the depression American’s held onto the promise of individual opportunity Black Tuesday: 10/29/1929 – stock values lost over $14 billion, corporations and individuals wiped out Exposed underlying weakness and shattered Hoover’s confidence Causes Structural flaws in national/international economies 01/30/2013 Failure of banks: bad credit system unregulated, thousands lost money that they thought was safe Corrupt corporate finance: bad investments Concerned more about strong dollar rather than stable employment, administration cut spending which worsened the collapse WWI: Germany owed money to Britain and France who owed money to US, funds that could have created jobs were loaned to Germany Effects Gross national product decrease Incomes fell by 40% Bank failures increased Business activity collapsed = high unemployment rates (1 in 3 workers) Extent and duration of unemployment Unemployed couldn’t find work, food, clothing or shelter nutritional disorders, disease hoboes farmers: drought 1930-1936, dust storms due to wasteful farming practices (Dust Bowl) effected everyone especially those already at disadvantage charities couldn’t keep up scarce public monies for unemployment aid/welfare “Hoover shirts” and “Hoovervilles” Herbert Hoover symbolized the failures of the government Hoover’s Response Orphaned at young age, Stanford University, millionaire, emergency relief during WWI Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929: raise farm incomes and rationalize production. Established a Federal Farm Board, which created cooperatives for purchasing and distributing surplus products, loans to stabilize prices National Credit Corporation: banks urged to pool resources 01/30/2013 Reconstruction Finance Corporation: loan $2 billion to revive large corporations Hawley-Smoot Tariff: raised import duties Worsened Depression Nothing working for Hoover Bonus Marchers: veterans asked to have their bonuses paid early, encamped on Capitol grounds, Hoover ordered army to remove them but MacArthur attacked them = government brutality = bad reputation for Hoover 1932 Election FDR: democrat “The only thing we should fear is fear itself” The First New Deal Federal Emergency Relief Administration: provided half a billion dollars to relief Civil Works Administration: employed 4 million men and women, built/renovated roads/schools/public buildings Eliminated in the spring so the nation didn’t get used to a federal welfare system Economy Act Civilian Conservation Corps: young men built roads and trails in national parks, employed over 3 million teenagers and young adults by the time it closed Tennessee Valley Authority: aimed to change the environment/economy of a region that spanned 9 states, built dams, soil conservation, created reservoirs, reforestation, Agricultural Adjustment Act: regulated the agricultural industry, farmers essentially worked for the federal government Emergency Farm Mortgage Act Truth in Securities Act Didn’t help rural poor – Native Americans National Industrial Recovery Act: business, labor and government officials had to negotiate a code (Blue Eagle banner) restructuring each industry into national cartel. The code set trade practices, wages, hours and production quotas Public Works Administration: $3.3 billion for job creation The Second New Deal 01/30/2013 Emergency Relief Appropriations Bill: provided $5 billion, created Works Progress Administration – employed Americans to build bridges, schools, libraries and sewer systems Social Security Act of 1935: long-term economic security, worker’s compensation, unemployment insurance, and aid to families with dependent children. Pensions for elderly. National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act: outlawed unions, allowed workers the right to bargain with employers Congress of Industrial Organizations Lewis and Hillman New Deal did not end Depression but allowed Americans to survive through it New Deal, WW2 and the Cold War           01/30/2013 The New Deal – Federal Relief Didn’t recognize relief as most important All previous relief had been from private/state/local organizations (churches) – too many people to handle during the Great Depression Thought cash relief program would result in permanent underclass by destroying work ethic Work Relief Civil Works administration Between November, 1933 and April, 1934 employed 4 million people to work on temporary projects such as roads, schools, and park construction “make work” jobs: in Iowa people would dig irrigation ditches and refill them, needed to give men something to do, thought physical work would make them feel better about themselves 1935: economy slowly springing back Criticism of New Deal Conservatives “from the right” New Deal goes too far American Liberty League: created by wealthy business leaders, said New Deal was a “moral threat” to capitalism and put editorials in the newspapers to arouse public opposition to the New Deal Said New Deal policies were dictatorial and restricted individual freedom, pointed towards socialism Never could expand beyond Northern Industrial capitalist who founded the organization Liberals “from the left” New Deal doesn’t go far enough More damaging to the cause Townsend Plan: medical Dr. Townsend, called for federal pensions for elderly: people over 60 should get $200 a month if they retire = would open more jobs for young Americans, if took pension had to spend it in full every month = pumping money back into the economy 5 million supporters = built public support for the Social Security Act Huey Long: Louisiana Senator, engaged in massive public works spending before the government did New Deal, WW2 and the Cold War           01/30/2013 “Share our Wealth” plan – blamed banks/oil/utility companies for undermining America, said drastic wealth redistribution could fix it if used the tax system to confiscate surplus riches of the wealthiest Americans, money would be redistributed to the rest of the population 100% tax on incomes above 1 million – anything above went to the government, appropriation (stealing) of fortunes over 5 million every American family would be given a car, house, old age benefits, a comfy income and educational opportunities = “every man would be a king” FDR responds with tax reforms “Soak the Rich” Established the highest/most progressive peace-time tax rates in US history Huey Long had 8 million supporters, was assassinated, FDR had him followed by FBI because he was afraid of his radicalism 2 New Deal Social Security Act of 1935 Based on the principle of “equity”, indicating both “fairness, justice, irripartiality and ownership interests of shareholders; a stake” Provides unemployment insurance to workers Provides benefits to workers injured in industrial or other workplace accidents Provides benefits to mothers of dependent children, soldiers and the crippled Draws on UK/Germany programs: mixed federal/state system of old age pensions for workers Elderly: immediate cash relief up to $15 a month to unemployed/poor elderly Currently working Americans incorporated into the pension system – payroll tax to provide workers with an income upon retirement, wanted system of insurance not welfare, people need benefits because they cant support themselves or they earned it (veterans) Excluded from Soc. Security Act: farmworkers, domestic servants, self-employed, laundry workers, merchant marines, many African Americans (60% fully employed African American’s didn’t receive coverage), 60% workers excluded were female Because informal jobs didn’t receive a paycheck Decided widowed women could move in with family so got less money than men – true today WWII US enters war in 1941 after Pearl Harbor New Deal, WW2 and the Cold War           01/30/2013 September, 1939: begins when Hitler invades Poland with the aim of securing a German speaking portion Great Britain and France declare war on Germany Stalin: head of SSR signs non-aggression pact with Hitler 1940: Hitler’s forces invade France US promises to remain neutral: isolationist attitude after WWI 1939: FDR asks congress to revise part of the Neutrality Act the act had an arms embargo, the US couldn’t sell arms to any nation in war revision: any nation I war could purchase arms from the US on a “cash and carry” basis: had to have the money up front significance: made it look like the US wasn’t favoring 1 country over another if they allowed all countries in the war to buy on cash and carry basis 1940: FDR gets 1 billion in defense spending Churchill (Great Britain) asks FDR for help, says GB will not survive without the US help FDR gave 50 destroyers to GB = ignoring cash and carry policy US receives the right to build bases on British territories on Western Hemisphere = not neutral FDR returned airplanes to factories so GB could buy them The public believed that Germany posed a direct threat to the US Burke-Wadsworth Act: first peace-time draft in the US history Neutral but American’s are volunteering for the war = not really neutral 1940: Presidential campaign year FDR waited to announce if he would run for a third term = impossible for any other democrat candidate to start a campaign FDR chooses Henry Wallace as running mate and goes against Wendell Willkie (Republican) = FDR wins 3 term GB bankrupt, can’t meet cash and carry policy “Lend Lease” – new system put in place for GB = government could sell/loan arms to any nation deemed pivotal to the defense of the US assumed Great Britain would return everything but they didn’t New Deal, WW2 and the Cold War           01/30/2013 public relations: way to make the US look neutral Germans attacking Atlantic shipping lanes Submarine warfare: made shipping arms to GB dangerous US use military vessels to convoy arms to GB = looks aggressive to Germany, FDR disagrees and declares the West Atlantic as a neutral zone and therefore American responsibility to patrol it July 1941: American ships patrolling as far East as Iceland: not in West Atlantic September, 1941: Germany invades Soviet Union = against non aggression pact that Hitler had signed with Stalin Soviet Union does not surrender to Hitler = FDR extends Loan Lease to Soviet Union = American industry providing military assistance to Hitler’s enemies on 2 fronts (Great Britain and Soviet Union) = not neutral End 1941: Nazi submarines attacking US shipping vessels FDR ordered American ships to fire on German submarines on sight = not neutral Japan: trying to expand empire in Pacific Signed agreement with Germany and Italy July 1941: Japan seized capital of Vietnam (French colony) made move against France (ally of US) FDR warns Japan by freezing Japanese assets in the US = limited Japans abilities to buy supplies October 1941: overthrow of government in Tokyo – General Tojo takes over (was head of warfare) November 1941: US state department gives up on diplomatic agreement with Japan December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor – Japan attacks America Japanese planes sink 8 US battleships, 188 planes and 7 other boats 3500 service men and women die senate voted unanimously for war, 1 vote against going to war with Japan was Jenette Ranken US declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on Japan, Congress declares war on Germany and Italy 1942: 1/3 US economy committed to war production New Deal, WW2 and the Cold War           01/30/2013 1945: US was the worlds largest weapons manufacturer, creati
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