• Bouquet Garni - made up of fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a bundle. If leek is used to
wrap the bouquet garni ingredients, it must be thoroughly rinsed of dirt first. Cut a piece of
string long enough to leave a tail to tie the bouquet to the pot handle.
• Condition the Pan – extends the life of the pan by rinsing the pan, adding vegetable oil and
bringing it to a boil and wipe the oil away when cool.
• **Deglaze – dilute meat sediments in (a pan) in order to make a gravy or sauce, typically
• **Degraisse – to skim off the fat on the surface of a liquid, such as a stock or sauce
• Dore – golden, gold-colored or bronzed or tanned in terms of skin
• Essence – a concentrated flavoring extracted from an item, usually infusion or distillation.
This includes vanilla and other extracts, concentrated stocks, and fumets
• Extraction –
• Fond – refers to the browned bits and caramelized drippings of meat and vegetables that
stick to the bottom of the pan in sautéing
• Fremier – to keep a liquid just below the boiling point
• **Fumet – a highly flavored stock made with fish bones, chicken, game, etc. in water, wine
or both. Often boiled down to concentrate the flavor; used as a flavoring
• **Glace – a highly reduced stock or remouillage
• Infusion – an extract obtained by steeping or soaking
• Mirepoix – the mixture of coarsely chopped onions, carrots, and celery. Provides a flavor
boost for stock
• Remouillage – literally, “rewetting.” A stock made from bones that have already been used
for stock. Weaker than a first-quality stock, it is often reduced to make glaze
• Sachet d’epices – similar to bouquet garni except it really is a bag of herbs and spices,
usually wrapped in cheesecloth
• Skim – to remove scum, fat, or other impurities from the surface of a liquid, while it is
cooking. Use a slotted spoon for solids and an unslotted spoon to remove fatty liquids
• Simmer – to cook a liquid under boiling point, will have bubbles floating from bottom to top • Smother – method for cooking mirepoix covered until it releases liquid
• Sweat – gently heating vegetables in a little oil or butter, with frequent stirring and turning to
ensure that any liquid evaporates
What are the main components of a stock?
Flavoring ingredients (bones, etc.), Water or wine, Mirepoix, Sachet d’epices or Bouquet garni
What are four ways to prepare bones for a stock?
White beef stock, White and brown veal and game stocks, White poultry and game bird stocks,
Fish stock and fumet
What is the difference between a sachet d’epices and a bouquet garni?
A bouquet garni's ingredients are tied together with kitchen twine whereas a sachet d'Epices'
ingredients are placed in cheesecloth and then the cheesecloth is tied with kitchen twine.
What are the basic ratios and cooking times for 1 gallon of beef, poultry, vegetable and fish
BEEF, CHICKEN, 8 pounds
VEAL, GAME 6 to 8 hours
35 to 45 minutes
45 minutes to 1 hour, depending on the
VEGETABLE specific ingredients and the size of the
Rule of Thumb per Gallon of Stock:
5 to 6 gallons of liquid
What are the steps to prepare a stock? 1. Prepare major flavoring ingredients
-Brown for brown stock
-Blanch if frozen for white stocks
-Do nothing but wash if fresh for a white stock
-Sweat or smother bones for a fumet
Sweat or smothering:
Variation of sautéing
2. Heat major flavoring ingredients with liquid
-Add COLD liquid
-Slowly bring to simmer
3. Maintain simmer
-Keep up natural convection movement
Do not stir
Do not allow stock to boil
4. Skim your scum (impurities)
5. Add the mirepoix and aromatics
7. Use immediately or cool and store
What can cause a stock to get cloudy? How can this be prevented from happening?
-Take care not to let the broth boil, as boiling will make it cloudy -Apart from the aesthetics of a clear stock, the impurities that leave a stock cloudy are the same
elements that will quickly spoil and sour a stock. Therefore, the clearer the stock, the longer its shelf
How are stocks properly cooled and stored?
Cool the stock over an ice bath, stirring frequently, until it reaches 40°F/4°C, if not using immediately.
Skim any fat that rises to the surface or wait until it has hardened under refrigeration and simply lift it
away before reheating the stock for later use.
• **Au sec – to take a liquid (most likely acidic like wine or vinegar) and reduce it until it is dry
• **Beurre blanc - reduction made from dry white wine, vinegar, minced shallot, and
• **Beurre manie - "raw roux" preparation of small chunks or pea-size balls of butter rolled in
flour; used to thicken sauces
• **Bearnaise - a derivative of Hollandaise Sauce; Tarragon reduction. Garnish with fresh
tarragon and chervil
• Bechamel – milk and pale roux
• Blanch – to take the item and put it in boiling water, lift it out after the prescribed time and
cool quickly, usually in an ice bath
• **Compound Butter – mixtures of butter and supplementary ingredients. Primarily they are
used to enhance flavor in various dishes, in fashion similar to a sauce
• Convection – a method of heat transfer where food is heated by a moving heat source such
as hot air inside an oven that is circulated by a fan
• **Coulis – fruit/vegetable puree used as a sauce
• Depouillage – bring the sauce to a boil, reduce the heat and the fat should rise then skim
the fat off the top
• Emulsion – formed by suspending tiny particles of an oily substance in a liquid; a third
ingredient acts a stabler • Espagnole – literally “Spanish Sauce.” Brown sauce made with brown stock, carmelized
mirepoix, tomato puree, seasonings and roux
• **Monte au buerre – means to emulsify with butter
• **Nappe – completely coat food with a light, even, layer of sauce
• Onion Pique – attaching one or more bay leaves to an onion by pushing whole cloves
through the leaves into the onion
• Pince/Pincage – “cook-out” reduced excessive sweetness, acidity or bitterness which might
affect a sauce
• Reduction – the process of thickening and intensifying the flavor of a liquid mixture such as
a soup, sauce, wine or juice by boiling
• Render – melting and clarifying hard animal fat for cooking purposes. The fat is slowly
cooked until it melts and is then strained of impurities from the cooking process
• Roux – a thickener made of equal parts cooked flour and fat, such as clarified butter, oil or
• Scorch – to burn the surface with heat
• Smothering - to steam (usually mirepoix) slowly in a heavy, tightly closed vessel with a
minimum of liquid
• Sweating – Gently heating vegetables in a little oil or butter with frequent stirring and turning
to ensure that any liquid will evaporate. Do not become brown
• Tomato Sauce – tomato + white stock + golden roux
• Veloute – white stock and white/golden roux
List the four roux-based grand sauces.
Brown Sauce (Espagnol, Demi-Glace), White Sauce (Veloute, Bechamel), Tomato, Hollandaise
Name four different types of thickeners used in the professional kitchen. Describe how each
is incorporated into liquid to thicken. Flour (roux)
Starch slurry -
Beurre manie - "raw roux" preparation of small chunks or pea-size balls of butter rolled in flour; used
to thicken sauces
Why should stock return to a full boil incorporating the roux when preparing veloute?
A simmering time of at least 30 minutes is long enough to cook away any raw flavor from the roux
Why is skimming a sauce throughout its cooking time important? How is this process made
Better known as depouillage, it establishes the physical properties of sauce. Move pot to only half of
the stove; scum is then pushed to the cooler side where you can skim off impurities
List two different emulsion sauces and describe how an emulsion is formed.
An emulsion is formed by suspending tiny particles of an oily substance in a liquid.
Mayonnaise (egg yolks and oil)
Hollandaise sauce (egg yolks and clarified butter)
Can a hollandaise sauce be served if it breaks. If so, how?
If the sauce becomes too thick, add a bit of water or lemon juice. This makes it possible to finish
adding the correct amount of butter without breaking the sauce.
If the sauce becomes too hot, the egg yolks will begin to scramble. To correct this problem, remove
the sauce from the heat and add a small amount of cool water. Whisk the sauce until it is smooth
and, if necessary, s