Forests and People
(Format: Multiple choice and short answer questions ...+ 10 point extra credit)
Fundamental Concepts from Sections 1-4
A. What is a working definition for sustainable forest management (SFM)? How can SFM be defined with
respect to biological diversity, timber harvesting, water resources, aquatic ecosystems, and local
communities and economies.
Sustainable forest management (SFM) is the management of forests according to the principles
of sustainable development. Sustainable forest management uses very broad social, economic
and environmental goals. Definition: The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a
way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality
and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social
functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other
ecosystems. Attainment for balance between society's increasing demands for forest products
and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity.
B. Explain the rationale for the TRIAD concept as it is applied to the management of large forested
areas—(1) reserves, (2) extensively managed areas, and (3) intensively managed areas (e.g., plantations).
How can it help to ensure "the greatest good [biological integrity and economic value], for the greatest
number [of people, firms, and organisms], over the long run"?
TRIAD acknowledges the need to produce wood and looks to harmonize forest uses, functions,
and values, which would avoid or minimize resource use conflicts. Reserve Areas are where
there is no harvesting. Extensive management areas are where there is multiple uses. Intensive
management areas are where there is agroforestry, which is the raising of trees into farming.
This preserves, conserves and utilizes.
C. How long does it usually take to raise awareness, change values and attitudes, alter unsustainable
behavior(s), and bring about a lasting change in forest conservation or environmental management
(months, years, decades?)? How do these social, economic, and political changes play out? Provide
some historical examples.
It depends on who is trying to raise the awareness. If it is someone of power like a political
figure then I think it will take a shorter time than if some “normal” person is trying to spread the
awareness. People have a tendency to follow and listen to powerful figures while they ignoe the
Historical: Teddy Roosevelt – Boone and Crocket Club, US Forest Service, National Parks and
D. Why is it important, if not essential, for scientists and managers (and the public and policymakers) to
have a thorough knowledge of land and resource use history? Provide some examples of successful policies or programs that could inform and enhance forest conservation in the 21st century (e.g., the
CCC adapted to urban needs and opportunities).
It is important because the history shows what has and what has not worked in the past. The
history shows policies that improved the environment.
Eg: CCC, The Green Belt Movement,
E. What are the characteristics of even-aged and uneven-aged stands?
Even-aged: When a lot is clear cut no matter the size or age. Then new trees are planted and
some are treated to grow first (shade tolerant) while the shade-intolerant trees aren’t so they
are even growth for the next clear cut. Characteristics: same age, roughly same DBH, roughly
Uneven-aged: When the trees in the stand are of different ages. Selectively removing trees and
planting new seedlings. Characteristics: Uneven heights, different ages, different DBH (diameter
at breast height)
F. What is the purpose of thinning a forest stand?
Thinning a forest stand improves growing quality for the desired trees. Thinning will remove any
trees that are not desired so the desired trees can increase growth rate and the health of the
G. Uneven-aged regeneration methods: single tree selection, small group selection, patch cuts (up to
~one mature height in diameter) …mimicking gap dynamics
H. Even-aged regeneration methods: shelterwood, patch retention (<1/2 of original stand), seed
tree …mimicking stand replacement events (microburst, tornado, or hurricane damage, intermediate to
high intensity wildfires, etc.)
Shelterwood Method- 1) Preparatory cut…crown thinning to improve the vigor, resistance to
wind damage, seed production, and growth rate of residual stand. 2) Seed Cut...creates
openings, alters microclimate on the forest floor, and generates abundant seed ...to establish,
yet protect seedlings with the “shelterwood.” 3) Removal Cut...harvesting the “shelterwood” to
release the even-aged regeneration (now large saplings) and add to the total income of the
stand treatment (now very valuable trees).
1. What are the consequences of forest conversion to residential, commercial, and industrial land use
with respect to public water supplies, public health, and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., fish habitat)? In other
words, how does conventional development change the quantity, timing, and quality o