[NURSING 210] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (18 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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UMASS-Amherst
NURSING 210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 10
Learning Objectives
Do adolescents from different historical times or in cultures around the
world experience the period of adolescence and emerging adulthood in
the same way.
The features of the developmental niche that US adolescents occupy
today.
The physical changes that take place at adolescence, particularly those
associated with puberty.
Why adolescents focus on issues of body image and ways these concerns
are expressed.
If it is better to sexually mature before or after most of one’s peers.
How sexual practices and expectations have evolved over the past 6
decades.
How the brain changes during adolescence and emerging adulthood.
What formal operations are and how cognition develops during
adolescence.
What adolescent egocentrism is and how it is linked to the changes in
cognitive development that teenagers and emerging adults typically
experience.
Key Terms and Concepts
Adolescent growth spurt
Androgens
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Emerging Adulthood
Estrogen
Formal operations
Hormones
Imaginary audience
Marginal group
Menarche
Personal fable
Progesterone
Puberty
Rites of passage
Same sex orientation
Secular trend
Sexual double standard
Testosterone
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Study Guide
I. Adolescent Development in a Cultural and Historical Context
*RITES OF PASSAGEsymbolic events or rituals to mark life
transitions, such as from childhood to adult status.
1. Adolescents are sensitive to the social world around them
2. The social context in which development occurs must be
considered in understanding adolescence.
*EMERGING ADULTHOOD – In industrialized cultures, the
transitional developmental period that bridges the end of
adolescence and the beginning of adulthood; typically between
ages 18 and 25.
1. The adolescent period can be divided into early adolescence,
later adolescence, and emerging adulthood
2. Entry into adulthood varies considerably from person to
person
A. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood in the United States Today
1. Adolescents and emerging adults are largely age segregated,
that is, they interact mostly with other people of their same age and
much less with younger children or adults.
a. This separates the younger adolescent from younger
children and thus deprives them of the opportunity to
guide and tutor those who are less knowledgeable
b. This also separates them from adult culture and they
lack the chance to learn jobs by working with adults
2. Adolescents are largely economically dependent on their
parents
3. Adolescents are deeply affected by, and develop strong
opinions about, the events of the time in which they live
4. Adolescents are influenced by images projected by the mass
media
a. They accept tragedy, sexuality, and brutality in a matter-
of-fact way
b. Adolescents tend to gravitate to the more grisly,
counterculture aspects of media programming
5. Characteristics of emerging adulthood
a. Identity explorations
b. Instability, uncertainty, & challenge
c. Self-focused perspective
d. Feelings of “in-between”
e. Age of possibilities
II. Physical Development and Adaptation
A. Physical Growth and Change
1. The biological hallmarks of entry into adolescence are a
marked increase in the rate of growth, rapid development of
the reproductive organs, and the appearance of secondary
sex characteristics (e.g., body hair)
2. Some changes are the same for both boys and girls –
increased size, strength, and stamina. Most changes are sex
specific (e.g., body fat)
3. The physical changes are largely controlled by
HORMONES, bio-chemical substances that are secreted
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