midterm review nutrition.docx

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Claire Norton

Chapter 1 -Understand why nutrition is important for health. - nutrition encompasses physical, psychological, food safety, global food supply and cultual -Be Able to identify 6 Classes of nutrients and their energy content. - carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, water -Be Able to define EAR And RDA Know the difference in terms of population needs and recommendations -Estimated Average Requirement- average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the needs of ½ of healthy individuals in a particular group, Recommended Daily Allowence- the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the requirements of 98% of healthy individuals -Be Able identify good research and the steps involved in conducting good research -Observation, epidemiological analysis, lab science, human studies (case control, clinical trial) -Know leading cause of death in US relating to nutrition -Type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity -Be able to identify reliable and unreliable sources of information - Registered Dietitians (RD), licensed dietitians, professionals with degrees in nutrition, medical DR. Chapter 3 -Identify the organs and accessory organs of the digestive tract -Mouth: chews/breaks down food, saliva moistens food with enzymes, esophagus: food moves to the stomach by peristalsis, stomach: churns and mixes food, acid digests food, small intestine: breaks down food with enzymes and bile -Describe the contribution of each organ of the GI system to the digestion, absorption, and elimination of food." -digestion accessory organs: salivary glands, lives: produces bile, pancreas: produces enzymes, gallbladder: stores bile ; elimination: large intestie, rectum, anus -Identify GI related diseases and their causes -heartburn, peptic ulcers, diarrhea, constipation, bowel disorders -Distinguish between appetite and hunger, and the mechanism that stimulates each -Appetite- psychological desire to eat, hunger- physiological desire to eat, hunger stimulated by ghrelin -Be able to identify internal and external cues involved in hunger and appetite (including hormones involved in appetite)" -Internal cues: hunger- empty stomach, low blood sugar, ghrelin, fullness: stomach stretching, high blood sugar, hormones release from GI tract, external cues: time, distractions -Explain the difference between a food allergy and a food intolerance -Intolerance: discomfort and non life threatening, Allergy: the immune system reacts to proteins in food and can be life threatening Chapter 4 -Identify food sources of carbohydrates" -rice, fruits, beans, bread - Describe the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates" -simple: food sweeteners glucose, fructose, galactose, complex: starc, glycogen, gfiber, -Identify the health benefits of dietary fiber and be able to define high fiber foods" -total fiber is a food, naturally occurring fibers- non digestible parts of plants , added fiber- carbs extracted from plants or manufactured - Describe the digestion of carbohydrates and the hormones involved in blood glucose control" -taken by small intestines and convert monosaccharide into glucose then is stored in liver for processing. - Explain the carbohydrate information on a food label (know how to calculate sugar content), be able to identify whole grain products. Know which portion of the label is regulated by FDA" - 1 teaspoon = 4 grams of sugar, Total carbs – Sugars= Complex carbs -Identify the health risks of high simple sugar intake, the specific health risks of fructose and the HFCS controversy" - tooth decay, hyperactivity in children, blood lipids, obesity - Explain the concept of glycemic index and be able to identify high and low glycemic foods." - the Rating of the potential of a food to raise blood glucose levels - Name the diseases associated with abnormal carbohydrate digestion or metabolism" -Hypoglycemia- low blood sugar after eating, too much insulin produced ; Lactose intolerant, diabetes -Specifically understand the disease process in type II diabetes." -high blood pressure glucose levels, much more common, about 1/3 people in US get it, cannot be cured but there are some cases where it can be reversed but still live, lot f insulin but doesn’t work Chapter 5 • Identify the structure and describe the function of the 3 classes of lipids. -Triglycerides-, Phospholipids: structure glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, one phosphate group, make up cell membrane, Sterols: cholesterol, 80% manufactured by liver, 20% consumed in food • Define saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids. Describe their main food sources and impact on cardiovascular health. -Saturated: linked to CVD, higher LDL levels, source: animal foods Monounsaturated: linked to CVD, low LDL , low inflammation, source: olive oil, avocado, nuts Polyunsaturated: Omega 3- linked to CVD, low inflammation, source: salmon, walnuts, canola oil Omega 6- linked to CVD, high inflammation, source: corn/seed oil Trans Fats: linked to CVD, high LDL, low HDL, source: baked goods, chips • Describe what digestive and accessory organs contribute to fat digestion. -Digestive: Mouth, stomach, small intestine. Accessory: liver, gallbladder, pancrease • Describe the role of HDL and LDL and health implications of different lipoprotein levels. -HDL: type of micro protein carries cholesterol from the cells to liver, LDL: bad chlesterol • Define low fat, reduced fat, non fat, and no trans fat, as used on food labels in the U.S. - Fat free: .5g/serving, low fat: <3g/serving, reduced fat: 25% less fat than usual, trans fat free: . 5g • Know which information on a food label is regulated. • Identify the components of the Mediterranean Diet. - lowers risk of CVD changes to type of fat consumed not the intake Alcohol Slides -List the kcal/g alcohol. -7 kcal/g -Identify the organs involved in alcohol absorption. -liver: converts alcohol to fatty acids, metabolizes it for energy -List and discuss the determinants of alcohol absorption and metabolism. -Absorption: gender body size, food consumed, amount you drink, Metabolized through the liver -Define a drink (½ ounce of alcohol) by category. -0.5 oz of pure alcohol, 12oz beer, 5oz wine, 1.5 oz shot -List the health outcomes associated with heavy drinking. -cirrhosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, malnutrition, obesity, respiratory failure -List the health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption. -social enjoyment, relaxation, lowers risk of heart disease, good blood lipid profile Chapter 6 • Name the functions of protein. -cell growth, repair, maintanence, enzymes, hormones, fluids and electrolyte balance, energy • Describe the digestion of protein. -Mouth-> stomach-> small intestine-> liver, enzymes from the pancreas and small intestines break down into single amino acids which are transported to the liver to bring them to cells - Calculate a personʼs protein requirement. -Weight in lbs / 2.2 * 0.8 for regular or 1.4 for athletes • Define whey protein and its its effect on plasma protein levels. -whey is from milk, increases in plasma protein, immediately increases the level of amino acids • Identify certain common vegetarian diets. -Lacto ovo: eat everything except animal flesh and seafood, vegan: only plant based foods • Understand protein quality. Describe how to complement proteins, and how this is beneficial to vegetarian diets. - Complete Protein: all essential amino acids, Incomplete Protein: missing an essential amino acid, Complementary foods: legumes and nuts/seeds/grain. Casein, egg white, soybeans, beef are best quality of meat. • Identify risks of inadequate and excessive protein intake. -Too much: heart disease, bone loss, kidney disease, Too little: weight loss, reduced immunity • Understand the global consequences of protein energy malnutrition. - • Describe DNA, the manufacture of protein and the role of environment in gene expression. -Cells have DNA and certain sections have codes for proteins, cells use DNA information to make proteins, proteins run the show affecting health. • Understand the term GMO and what it means in terms of our food supply. -Genetically modified organism, gene that expresses desired trait is extracted from cell, combined with DNA of host cell, makes copies of gene, gene extracted and inserted into DNA of other organisms, leads to rapid growth of genetically engineered crops in the US Guest Lecture Know the prevalence of children worldwide who are malnourished ->50% of children die of malnutrition Understand the concept of Global Nutrition Disparities Chapter 7 • List the functions of water in our bodies including body composition. -transportation, blood volume, body temperature, protects and lubricate body tissue • Describe the functions of electrolytes in our bodies. -substance that disassociated in solution into positively and negatively charged ion (sodium/potassium) • Identify the risks of ov
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