CHAPTER 7 notes for the exam 2.docx

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Operations & Info Management
OIM 210
Ryan Wright

CHAPTER 7:  Internet service provider (ISP)-An organization or firm that provides access to the Internet.  URL (uniform resource locator) -Often used interchangeably with “Web address,” URLs identify resources on the Internet along with the application protocol need to retrieve it.  URLs may list the application protocol, host name, domain name, path name, and file name, in that order. Path and file names are case sensitive.  Protocol -Enables communication by defining the format of data and rules for exchange.  The http protocol defines how Web browser and Web servers communicate and is designed to be independent from the computer’s hardware and operating system  The next part of the URL in our diagram holds the host and domain name. Think of the domain name as the name of the network you’re trying to connect to, and think of the host as the computer you’re looking for on that network.  Many domains have lots of different hosts.  hypertext markup language (HTML) - Language used to compose Web pages.  domain name service (DNS) –phone book ; Internet directory service that allows devices and services to be named and discoverable. The DNS, for example, helps your browser locate the appropriate computers when entering an address like  IP(Internet protocol) -Routing protocol that is in charge of forwarding packets on the Internet.  IPaddress -Avalue used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0 to 255), separated by periods.  Web hosting service -Afirm that provides hardware and services to run the Web sites of others.  Adomain name represents an organization. Hosts are public services offered by that organization. Hosts are often thought of as a single computer, although many computers can operate under a single host name and many hosts can also be run off a single computer.  We’re running out of IP addresses. The current scheme (IPv4) is being replaced by IPv6, a scheme that will give us many more addresses and additional feature benefits but is not backward compatible with the IPv4 standard. Transitioning to IPv6 will be costly, take time, and introduce delay when traffic transfers between IPv4 and IPv6 networks.  The domain name system is a distributed, fault-tolerant system that uses nameservers to map host/domain name combinations to IP addresses.
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