Plagues.docx

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Department
Plant, Soil, Insect Studies
Course
PLSOILIN 140
Professor
cooley
Semester
Spring

Description
 Disease: A harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism.  Difference between infectious and non-infectious diseases...  A-Biotic: non-infectious  Infectious diseases are communicable; travel from one plant to another or animal to animal (transmission)  Disease vs. Pathogen  Pathogens cause the disease in the appropriate environment  Disease Triangle  Disease is the result of several factors coming together in a dynamic system (Host, Pathogen, Environment)  From 1900's to 2000's infectious diseases that cause death are less of a factor  Epidemiologic transition  Difference in mortality rates  Vaccines  Drugs  Antiseptics  Antibiotics  Clean water  Emerging Diseases-New diseases  Re-emerging diseases- Diseases that were once an issue but are now making a comeback  Microbial evolution and adaptation  Living things evolve  Microbes evolve quickly  10-20 generations a day (adapt to antibiotics)  Burden of Disease  Economic fallout caused by diseases  Morbidity  Rate of which people become sick  Types of microbes  Bacteria  Viruses  Fungi (mushrooms)  Protozoa (Malaria)  Helminthes (worms)  Most microbes aren't germs...  Germs are microbes but most Microbes aren't germs  Most Microbes are Transient: they cant grow and reproduce on or in us  A few are Resident: They grow and reproduce in our bodies  Most resident microbes are Commensal: one party is benefiting  Mutualistic: both parties are benefiting  Parasitic: one party takes advantage in the negative manner  Jeff Gordon  Germ-Free mice  More susceptible to disease  Streptococcus  Produces an acid which causes tooth decay  Periodontal disease  Eats away at the gums  Acne  Proponilracter  Other bacteria grow around secretions of the apocrine glands: underarms and genital areas  Ecology: scientific study of the relationships that organisms have with the respect to each other and the natural environment  Trophic Levels: what is eating what  Producers: Autotrophs  Consumers: Heterotrophs  The Black Death  The Plague  First Pandemic: Justinian's Plague (541-750)  Second Pandemic: Black Death (1347-1750)  Third Pandemic: (1855-1959)  Justinian's Plague  Historic Impacts  Europe fell back into the Dark Ages  Decrease in literacy  Trade broke down  The Decameron- Boccacio  Book written about Black Death  Florence:1338  Bubonic  Three forms of plague  Bubonic: Swelling of lymph glands  Septicemic: Blood  Pneumonic: Lungs  Where did the Black Death come from?  Arose from somewhere else but the rapidly growing trade brought it to Europe (Silk Road)  Siege of Caffa  Mongols vs. Genoese  Mongols came down with plague  Catapults the dead bodies into Caffa  Jewish Pogroms  Jews were blamed for the Plague  Flagellants  Said if they were given money and food the plague would disappear  Bacteria - Yersinia Pestis  Alexander Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato  Asian Outbreak 1894  Plague known as Zoonotic Disease  Animals are the carriers whom would bring it into the city  Tarabagan (carried the plague) in the Russian Planes  Carried the most lethal form: Pneumonic plague  Major outbreaks of plague are seen in high populations of tarabagans in Asia  Flea Bites  Pulex irritans  Simond demonstrated that fleas play a part in the transmission of the plague  Y.Pestis  Has genes to clot and un-clot blood  Does it to control the fleas behavior  St. Anthony's Fire  Outbreaks killed thousands of people  More children would die compared to adults  Ergotism  Oldest known fungal poisoning  Claviceps Purpurea  Alkaloid-ergotamine  Two forms of Ergotism  Gangrenous  Convulsive  Mary Matossian  Good description of ergotism through history  Spores= Fungal seeds  Fescue Foot Disease  Endophytes  Fungi related to Claviceps  Lives in grass blades  Get nutrients from grass ( also protect it from grazers and insects)  Witches  Proposed reasoning for the trials  Psychological- mass hysteria in the girls spreading to others  Property transfer- many wealthy widows  Martha Carrier  Two years earlier her family had smallpox  Accused at that time to be a witch whom started the smallpox epidemic  Independent minded women  Modern ergotism  Pont. St.. Esprit France, 1951  Attributed to contained flour  Most recent contentious hypothesis- CIA put LSD in food?  Medical Usage  Speed labor and stop post-partum bleeding  The alkaloids are Vasoconstrictor (make veins smaller)  Migraines  It's about Food  People eat rye and other grains  People get diseases if they eat ergot  Smallpox  Virus (7-17 days of asymptomatic)  Transmission and bio-warfare  Smallpox primarily transmitted by airborne droplets  Virgin soil epidemics  Measles  Diphtheria  Influenza  Scarlet Fever  Chicken Pox  Leptospirosis- "a bad yellowing"  Caused by a bacteria (spiral shape: spirochete)  Zonotoic disease  Transmits through species  Native American mortality rates far higher for virgin soil diseases  Native Americans could exceed 90%  Cahobia  Built mounds to avoid flooding in the Mississippi Valley  8,000-40,000 people  Evolution of people and germs  Domestic Animals  Used for food, transportation, etc.(Asia)  While in America not domesticated  Most animals in Africa were harder to domesticate  Agricultural increased population density- first cities  Livestock and disease  Many major killers of humanity had origins in animal hosts  Smallpox-Cattle  Flu-Pigs and ducks  Measles- cattle  Co-evolution of pathogens and hosts  Smallpox and people have co-evolved  Development of resistance in population- Generation One  Generation Two- Mortality rate lower  As the progression on generations the mortality rate decreases then stabilizes  Genetic Resistance is formed in the that population of people  Developing a balance  Process of periodic epidemics continues until disease becomes endemic in a region  Endemic disease: constantly present  Smallpox in Europe ( children who survived became immune)  Adaptive Immunity  An individual's response to a pathogen  Resistance of two types  Genetic Resistance selected over generations  Adaptive immunity acquired where disea
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