8 Pages
Unlock Document

Plant, Soil, Insect Studies

 Disease: A harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism.  Difference between infectious and non-infectious diseases...  A-Biotic: non-infectious  Infectious diseases are communicable; travel from one plant to another or animal to animal (transmission)  Disease vs. Pathogen  Pathogens cause the disease in the appropriate environment  Disease Triangle  Disease is the result of several factors coming together in a dynamic system (Host, Pathogen, Environment)  From 1900's to 2000's infectious diseases that cause death are less of a factor  Epidemiologic transition  Difference in mortality rates  Vaccines  Drugs  Antiseptics  Antibiotics  Clean water  Emerging Diseases-New diseases  Re-emerging diseases- Diseases that were once an issue but are now making a comeback  Microbial evolution and adaptation  Living things evolve  Microbes evolve quickly  10-20 generations a day (adapt to antibiotics)  Burden of Disease  Economic fallout caused by diseases  Morbidity  Rate of which people become sick  Types of microbes  Bacteria  Viruses  Fungi (mushrooms)  Protozoa (Malaria)  Helminthes (worms)  Most microbes aren't germs...  Germs are microbes but most Microbes aren't germs  Most Microbes are Transient: they cant grow and reproduce on or in us  A few are Resident: They grow and reproduce in our bodies  Most resident microbes are Commensal: one party is benefiting  Mutualistic: both parties are benefiting  Parasitic: one party takes advantage in the negative manner  Jeff Gordon  Germ-Free mice  More susceptible to disease  Streptococcus  Produces an acid which causes tooth decay  Periodontal disease  Eats away at the gums  Acne  Proponilracter  Other bacteria grow around secretions of the apocrine glands: underarms and genital areas  Ecology: scientific study of the relationships that organisms have with the respect to each other and the natural environment  Trophic Levels: what is eating what  Producers: Autotrophs  Consumers: Heterotrophs  The Black Death  The Plague  First Pandemic: Justinian's Plague (541-750)  Second Pandemic: Black Death (1347-1750)  Third Pandemic: (1855-1959)  Justinian's Plague  Historic Impacts  Europe fell back into the Dark Ages  Decrease in literacy  Trade broke down  The Decameron- Boccacio  Book written about Black Death  Florence:1338  Bubonic  Three forms of plague  Bubonic: Swelling of lymph glands  Septicemic: Blood  Pneumonic: Lungs  Where did the Black Death come from?  Arose from somewhere else but the rapidly growing trade brought it to Europe (Silk Road)  Siege of Caffa  Mongols vs. Genoese  Mongols came down with plague  Catapults the dead bodies into Caffa  Jewish Pogroms  Jews were blamed for the Plague  Flagellants  Said if they were given money and food the plague would disappear  Bacteria - Yersinia Pestis  Alexander Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato  Asian Outbreak 1894  Plague known as Zoonotic Disease  Animals are the carriers whom would bring it into the city  Tarabagan (carried the plague) in the Russian Planes  Carried the most lethal form: Pneumonic plague  Major outbreaks of plague are seen in high populations of tarabagans in Asia  Flea Bites  Pulex irritans  Simond demonstrated that fleas play a part in the transmission of the plague  Y.Pestis  Has genes to clot and un-clot blood  Does it to control the fleas behavior  St. Anthony's Fire  Outbreaks killed thousands of people  More children would die compared to adults  Ergotism  Oldest known fungal poisoning  Claviceps Purpurea  Alkaloid-ergotamine  Two forms of Ergotism  Gangrenous  Convulsive  Mary Matossian  Good description of ergotism through history  Spores= Fungal seeds  Fescue Foot Disease  Endophytes  Fungi related to Claviceps  Lives in grass blades  Get nutrients from grass ( also protect it from grazers and insects)  Witches  Proposed reasoning for the trials  Psychological- mass hysteria in the girls spreading to others  Property transfer- many wealthy widows  Martha Carrier  Two years earlier her family had smallpox  Accused at that time to be a witch whom started the smallpox epidemic  Independent minded women  Modern ergotism  Pont. St.. Esprit France, 1951  Attributed to contained flour  Most recent contentious hypothesis- CIA put LSD in food?  Medical Usage  Speed labor and stop post-partum bleeding  The alkaloids are Vasoconstrictor (make veins smaller)  Migraines  It's about Food  People eat rye and other grains  People get diseases if they eat ergot  Smallpox  Virus (7-17 days of asymptomatic)  Transmission and bio-warfare  Smallpox primarily transmitted by airborne droplets  Virgin soil epidemics  Measles  Diphtheria  Influenza  Scarlet Fever  Chicken Pox  Leptospirosis- "a bad yellowing"  Caused by a bacteria (spiral shape: spirochete)  Zonotoic disease  Transmits through species  Native American mortality rates far higher for virgin soil diseases  Native Americans could exceed 90%  Cahobia  Built mounds to avoid flooding in the Mississippi Valley  8,000-40,000 people  Evolution of people and germs  Domestic Animals  Used for food, transportation, etc.(Asia)  While in America not domesticated  Most animals in Africa were harder to domesticate  Agricultural increased population density- first cities  Livestock and disease  Many major killers of humanity had origins in animal hosts  Smallpox-Cattle  Flu-Pigs and ducks  Measles- cattle  Co-evolution of pathogens and hosts  Smallpox and people have co-evolved  Development of resistance in population- Generation One  Generation Two- Mortality rate lower  As the progression on generations the mortality rate decreases then stabilizes  Genetic Resistance is formed in the that population of people  Developing a balance  Process of periodic epidemics continues until disease becomes endemic in a region  Endemic disease: constantly present  Smallpox in Europe ( children who survived became immune)  Adaptive Immunity  An individual's response to a pathogen  Resistance of two types  Genetic Resistance selected over generations  Adaptive immunity acquired where disea
More Less

Related notes for PLSOILIN 140

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.