Exam 2 Cheat Sheet v1.docx

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences

Activation-synthesis theory- Hobson’s theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories lodged in various portions of the brain; Addictive drugs- drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdraw from them leads to a craving for the drug that is nearly irresistible; Algorithm- a rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a problem; Alternation model- supports members of a culture in their efforts to maintain their original cultural identity, as well as in their integration into the adopted culture; Alzheimer’s disease- an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems; Amnesia- memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties; Amygdala- part of the limbic system, involved with memories involving emotion; Analytical learning style- best when they can carry out an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomenon or situation; Anterograde amnesia- amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury; Arrangement problems- require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion; Artificial intelligence- field that examines how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities; Autobiographical memories- our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives; Availability heuristic- involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory; Babble- meaningless speech like sounds made by children under 1 year old Behavior modification- a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones; Biculturalism- being a member of two cultures and its psychological impact; Biological constraints- built-in limitations in the ability of animals to learn particular behaviors; Biologically based- body becomes so accustomed to functioning in the presence of a drug that it cannot function without it; Change Blindness: do not notice change visual; Circadian rhythms- Biological processes that occur regularly approximately a 24-hour cycle; Classical conditioning- learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response; Cognitive learning theory- an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning; Concepts- categorizations of objects, events, or people that share common properties; Conditioned response- a response that after condition follows a previously neutral stimulus (salivation); Conditioned stimulus (CS)- a once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus (sound of the bell); Conformation bias- the tendency to favor information that supports one’s initial hypotheses and ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions; Consolidation- memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory; Constructive processes- process in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events; Continuous reinforcement schedule- reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs; Convergent thinking- the ability to produce responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic; Creativity- the ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways; Critical period- exist for language development early in life in which a child is sensitive to language cues and most easily acquires language; Cue-dependent forgetting- Forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory; Daydreams- Fantasies that people construct while awake; Decay- the loss of information in memory through its nonuse; Declarative memory- memory for factual information; Depressants- drugs that slow down the nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, Rohypnol); Discriminative stimulus- signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response; Divergent thinking- the ability to generate unusual, yet nonetheless appropriate, responses to problems or questions; Dreams-for-survival theory- suggests that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep; Echoic memory- stores auditory information coming from the ears; Engram- physical memory trace that corresponds to a memory; Episodic memory- memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context; Explicit memory- intentional or conscious recollection of information; Extinction: a basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears; False memory- repressed memories may well be inaccurate or wholly false; Fixed-interval schedule- a schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low; Fixed-ratio schedule- a schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made (work quickly); Flashbulb memories- memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event; Functional fixedness- the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use; Grammar- the system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed; Hallucinogens- (Cannabis, MDMA, LSD) drugs that produce hallucinations, or changes in the perceptual process ; Heuristic- a cognitive shortcut that may lead to a solution; Hippocampus- part of the brain’s limbic system. Plays a central role in consolidation of memories. Located within the brain’s medial temporal lobes behind the eyes, the it aids in the initial encoding of information acting as an email system; information is passed to the cortex ; Hypnosis- a trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others; Iconic memory- reflects information from the visual system; Ill-defined problem- specific nature of the problem is unclear, the information required to solve the problem may be even less obvious; Immersion programs- students are immediately plunged into English instruction in all subjects; Implicit memory- memories or which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior; Ineffability- the inability to understand an experience rationally or describe it in words; Insight- sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another; Interactionist approach- the view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language; Interference- the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information; Korsakoff’s syndrome- a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story; Language- the communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules; Language-acquisition device- a neural system of the brain hypothesized by Noam Chomsky to permit understanding of language; Latent content of dreams- According to Freud, the disguised meanings of dreams are hidden by more obvious subjects; Latent learning- learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it; Law of effect- responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated; Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience; Learning styles- characteristic ways of approaching material based on their cultural background and unique pattern of abilities; Learning-theory- the theory suggesting that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning; Levels-of-processing theory- the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed; Linguistic-relativity hypothesis- the notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world; Long-term memory- Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve; Long-term potentiation- certain neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is being learned; Manifest content of dreams- The apparent story line of a dream which may not be related to the true meaning of a dream; Means-ends analysis- repeated testing for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists; Meditation- a learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness; Memory traces- the physical changes that take place in the brain wh
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