FINAL EXAM // PSYCHOTHERAPY
Antianxiety Drugs // Reduce the levels of anxiety a person
experiences by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-
being. Popular drugs include Xanax and Valium which when mixed
with alcohol can be lethal and long term use can lead to dependence.
Antidepressant Drugs // Medications that improve a severely
depressed patient's mood and feelings of well being. Work by
changing the concentration of specific neurotransmitters in the brain.
(Tricyclic, MAO inhibitors, SSRIs)
Antipsychotic Drugs // Drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic
symptoms like agitation, hallucinations or delusions. The first
successful drug was Chlorpromazine. - The new generation is known
as atypical antipsychotics. These are rizperidone, olanzapine and
paliperidone. These block dopamine receptors in the brain. Can have
long term side effects.
Arachnophobia Anxiety Hierarchy // 1. hold the snake in your hands
2. see free snake from up close 3. see a real snake in its cage 4. see and
touch a fake snake 5. see a picture of a snake
Aversion Therapy: Goals // (Classical Therapies) Pair behavior with a
negative even to distinguish it. Aversion Therapy: Techniques // Operant conditioning
Behavioral Therapy: Exposure // People are confronted gradually or
suddenly to a feared stimulus but with no bad outcome (positive
event) Eventually the anxiety will be distinguished.
Behavioral Therapy: Goal // (Classical Therapies) Change the
problem behavior, no thoughts, no reflection on the past.
Behavioral Therapy: Techniques // From classical conditioning
Biomedical Therapy // Relies on drugs and medical procedures to
improve psychological functioning.
Client Centered: Goal // (Classical Therapies) Help the client solve
their own problems by creating a warm, calm environment and
Client Centered: How // Non-directive, collaborative approach. //
genuine, empathic, accepting
Client Centered: Techniques // Reflection: repeat back what they saw
in other words
Body language: eye contact, lean forward
Unconditional positive regard: therapist is always on the clients side
Empathy: the client thinks you feel their pain Cognitive Appraisal // Clients are asked to evaluate situations,
themselves and others in terms of their memories, values, beliefs,
thoughts and expectations.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy // (Contemporary Therapy) Combines
elements from behavior and cognitive therapies to help individuals
look at distortions in their thinking, which causes them to feel badly,
which in turn affects their behavior.
Cognitive Therapy: Goal // (Classical Therapies) To change the way in
which we think about things. - change thinking from deconstructive
to constructive - automatic thoughts (usually negative) color our
Cognitive Therapy: Techniques // First identify irrational or
maladaptive thoughts. (automatic thoughts/black and white
thoughts/over generalizations) Then, challenge the thoughts (come
up with a rational interpretation of the situation.
Community Psychology // Branch of psychology that focuses on the
prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the
community. Contingency Contract // Therapist and client draw up a written
contract that has behavioral goals the client hopes to achieve. Also
have listed positive privileges and negative consequences.
Dialetical Behavioral Therapy // Focus is on getting people to accept
who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal. Therapists
say, you can either be unhappy, or you can change.
Drug Therapy // Control of psychological disorders through the use
of drugs. Drugs work by altering the operation of neurotransmitters
and neurons in the brain, by inhibiting neurotransmitters or receptor
neurons which reduces activity at particular synapses. Other drugs
increase the activity of neurotransmitters or neurons which allows
particular neurons to fire more frequently.
ECT vs. TMS // electroconvulsive therapy is used in the treatment of
severe depression in which an electric curent of 70-150 volts is briefly
administered to a patient's head. // transcranial magnetic stimulation
is another depression treatment in which