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Psychology & Brain Sciences

FINAL EXAM // PSYCHOTHERAPY Antianxiety Drugs // Reduce the levels of anxiety a person experiences by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well- being. Popular drugs include Xanax and Valium which when mixed with alcohol can be lethal and long term use can lead to dependence. Antidepressant Drugs // Medications that improve a severely depressed patient's mood and feelings of well being. Work by changing the concentration of specific neurotransmitters in the brain. (Tricyclic, MAO inhibitors, SSRIs) Antipsychotic Drugs // Drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms like agitation, hallucinations or delusions. The first successful drug was Chlorpromazine. - The new generation is known as atypical antipsychotics. These are rizperidone, olanzapine and paliperidone. These block dopamine receptors in the brain. Can have long term side effects. Arachnophobia Anxiety Hierarchy // 1. hold the snake in your hands 2. see free snake from up close 3. see a real snake in its cage 4. see and touch a fake snake 5. see a picture of a snake Aversion Therapy: Goals // (Classical Therapies) Pair behavior with a negative even to distinguish it. Aversion Therapy: Techniques // Operant conditioning Behavioral Therapy: Exposure // People are confronted gradually or suddenly to a feared stimulus but with no bad outcome (positive event) Eventually the anxiety will be distinguished. Behavioral Therapy: Goal // (Classical Therapies) Change the problem behavior, no thoughts, no reflection on the past. Behavioral Therapy: Techniques // From classical conditioning Biomedical Therapy // Relies on drugs and medical procedures to improve psychological functioning. Client Centered: Goal // (Classical Therapies) Help the client solve their own problems by creating a warm, calm environment and granting authority. Client Centered: How // Non-directive, collaborative approach. // genuine, empathic, accepting Client Centered: Techniques // Reflection: repeat back what they saw in other words Body language: eye contact, lean forward Unconditional positive regard: therapist is always on the clients side Empathy: the client thinks you feel their pain Cognitive Appraisal // Clients are asked to evaluate situations, themselves and others in terms of their memories, values, beliefs, thoughts and expectations. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy // (Contemporary Therapy) Combines elements from behavior and cognitive therapies to help individuals look at distortions in their thinking, which causes them to feel badly, which in turn affects their behavior. Cognitive Therapy: Goal // (Classical Therapies) To change the way in which we think about things. - change thinking from deconstructive to constructive - automatic thoughts (usually negative) color our feelings Cognitive Therapy: Techniques // First identify irrational or maladaptive thoughts. (automatic thoughts/black and white thoughts/over generalizations) Then, challenge the thoughts (come up with a rational interpretation of the situation. Community Psychology // Branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community. Contingency Contract // Therapist and client draw up a written contract that has behavioral goals the client hopes to achieve. Also have listed positive privileges and negative consequences. Dialetical Behavioral Therapy // Focus is on getting people to accept who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal. Therapists say, you can either be unhappy, or you can change. Drug Therapy // Control of psychological disorders through the use of drugs. Drugs work by altering the operation of neurotransmitters and neurons in the brain, by inhibiting neurotransmitters or receptor neurons which reduces activity at particular synapses. Other drugs increase the activity of neurotransmitters or neurons which allows particular neurons to fire more frequently. ECT vs. TMS // electroconvulsive therapy is used in the treatment of severe depression in which an electric curent of 70-150 volts is briefly administered to a patient's head. // transcranial magnetic stimulation is another depression treatment in which
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