PSYCHOLOGY FINAL // Psychological Disorders
Abnormal Behavior // Behavior that causes people to experience
distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives.
Agoraphobia // Fear of being in a situation you cannot escape One
may never leave home.
Anorexia: Causes // Social pressure to be thin (biology) Vulnerability,
low self-esteem, perfection and control
Anorexia: Facts // Affects females most (95%), 10% mortality rate,
onset in early teens, common among the upper SES groups.
Anorexia: Symptoms // Body weight is 85% of expected weight.
Refusal to eat, gain, or maintain weight. Body distortion and
Anxiety Attacks // Severe sympathetic nervous system arousal.
(Heart racing, sweaty palms, feel like you cannot breathe.)
Anxiety Disorders: general symptoms // Persistent (long lasting),
intense, and need maladaptvie behaviors to reduce it.
AXIS I: Clinical Disorders // Cluster of disorders: Symptoms come
and go. Mood disorders/anxiety disorders/psychotic
disorders/dissociative disorders/eating disorders (Disorders that
produce distress and impair functioning) AXIS II: Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation // Cluster of
disorders: Pervasive, once you get it, it is yours to keep. Personality
disorders. (Enduring, rigid behavior patterns)
Axis III: General Medical Conditions // Physical disorders that may
be related to psychological disorders
Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems // Problems in a
person's life such as stressors or life events that may affect the
diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders
Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning // Overall level of mental,
social, occupational and leisure functioning
Behavioral Perspective on Abnormalities // Views the behavior as the
problem itself. Normal and abnormal behaviors are are responses to
various stimuli. This perspective provides the most precise and
objective approach for examining behavioral symptoms of specific
disorders. But, critics say that the perspective ignored the rich inner
world of thoughts, attitudes and emotions that may contribute to
Binge Eating Disorder // Bulimia without the compensatory
behavior. Accounts for 20% of the obesity rate. Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) // (Mood disorder) Combines
depressive episodes and manic episodes
Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms // Racing thoughts, pressured speech,
lack inhibitions, promiscuity, spending sprees, gambling, feelings of
omnipotence, needs significantly less sleep, high energy
Bipolar Disorder: Treatment // Very inheritable // responds well to
medication like lithium, depacote, neurotonin
Borderline Personality Disorder // Have difficulty developing a
secure sense of who they are. They tend to rely on relationships with
others to define their identity. Rejections are devastating. Have
difficulties trusting people and controlling their anger. - May become
sad and form one-sided relationships in which they need all of the
Bulimia: Facts // Affects mostly females, male high school wrestlers
and jockeys, onset is late teens to early thirties
Bulimia: Symptoms // Pattern of binging and purging. Eat large
amount of food in short time then vomitting, laxatives, fasting and
exercise. Distorted body image, normal to slightly overweight. Causes of anxiety disorders: Biological basis // Frontal lobes are
active when in an anxious state. Anxiety disordered people are very
responsive to some drugs that treat depression.
Causes of anxiety disorders: Classical Conditioning // Your plane hits
bad turbulence, now seeing a plane elicits fear.
Causes of anxiety disorders: Observation // You see a movie about a
plane crash now you fear flying because you think you could die
Causes of anxiety disorders: Psychological basis // Most people think
that these disorders reflect some events that occurred which is
Causes of mood disorders: biological basis // (Depressive Disorders)
Brain lacks serotonin can treat with SSRIs like prozac, zoloft or paxil
Causes of mood disorders: environmental triggers // Stress at work,
loss of a loved one, or failing a course can trigger a depressive episode
Causes of mood disorders: genetic component // (Depressive
Disorders) If a relative has it, it increases your odds
Causes of Schizophrenia // No one really knows but there are some
Causes of Schizophrenia: Brain abnormalities // Abnormal brain
activity: low frontal activity high thalamus act. Causes of Schizophrenia: Dopamine // Super high levels of
dopamine, lots of attempts to treat component.
Causes of Schizophrenia: Environmental factors // SES family
Causes of Schizophrenia: Genetics // No family history: 1-100
Identical twin: 1-2
Causes of Schizophrenia: Viral infection in prenatal development //
Mom get severe flu when pregnant, increases flu epidemic.
Childhood Disorders - ADHD and Autism // Marked by inattention,
impulsiveness, low tolerance for frustration and a great deal of
inappropriate activity. // severe developmental disorder that impairs
children's ability to communicate and relate to others. have
difficulties in both verbal and nonverbal communication and may
avoid social contact
Cluster A: Paranoid // Unwarranted suspiciousness, finds hidden
meanings in things, unforgiving of insults, holds grudges
Cluster B // Dramatic, impulsive, emotional behaviors.
Cluster B: Antisocial // Disregard for others, lack conscience,
remorse, deceitful Cluster B: Borderline // Instable relationship patters, sees things in
black and white, only attention seeking, self-destructive behaviors
Cluster B: Histrionic // Excessively emotional attention seeking, must
be the center of attention, shallow and shifting emotion
Cluster B: Narcissistic // Egocentric world, self-importance, entitles,
arrogant, overly important
Cluster C // Anxious and fearful behaviors
Cluster C: Avoidant // Socially inhibited, avoids interpersonal
contacts, fear they will not be liked,
Cluster C: Dependent // Cannot make everyday decisions, depends
on others for every move they make, cannot initiate, will not disagree
Cluster C: Obsessive Compulsive // Unlike syndrome: life long, does
not come and go, less extreme. Preoccupied with lists and all work
and no play, packrat, perfectionist, inflexible
Cognitive Perspective on Abnormalities // People's thoughts and
beliefs are central to a person's abnormal behavior.
Diagnosis of disorders // Descriptions of symptoms and behaviors.
Must have certain number of these symptoms then you are
diagnosed. (checklist of criteria). Dissociative disorders // Disorders involving disruptions in a person
memory, consciousness, or identity // very rare and very
Dissociative FUGUE: // Person leaves home and moves to new
location, no memory of past life.
Dissociative Identity Disorder/Multiple Personality Disorder //
Shattering of personal identity into two or more separate but co-
existing personalities. Each person has different traits, behaviors,
memories. Host personality, alters, switching.
DSM IV - TR // Handbook with basic organization of disorders.
Dysthymia // (Mood disorder) Mildest form of depression, stil able to
conduct life. Must have mild symptoms for at least two years.
Expressed emotion // Characterized by family members' criticism,
hostility, and emotional intrusiveness.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) // (Anxiety Disorders) A
continual overanxious state. Worried, tense concerned above and
beyond what is appropriate. Arousal of sympathetic nervous system.