PSYCHOLOGY FINAL: Psychological Disorders

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Psychology & Brain Sciences

PSYCHOLOGY FINAL // Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior // Behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives. Agoraphobia // Fear of being in a situation you cannot escape One may never leave home. Anorexia: Causes // Social pressure to be thin (biology) Vulnerability, low self-esteem, perfection and control Anorexia: Facts // Affects females most (95%), 10% mortality rate, onset in early teens, common among the upper SES groups. Anorexia: Symptoms // Body weight is 85% of expected weight. Refusal to eat, gain, or maintain weight. Body distortion and amenorrhea. Anxiety Attacks // Severe sympathetic nervous system arousal. (Heart racing, sweaty palms, feel like you cannot breathe.) Anxiety Disorders: general symptoms // Persistent (long lasting), intense, and need maladaptvie behaviors to reduce it. AXIS I: Clinical Disorders // Cluster of disorders: Symptoms come and go. Mood disorders/anxiety disorders/psychotic disorders/dissociative disorders/eating disorders (Disorders that produce distress and impair functioning) AXIS II: Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation // Cluster of disorders: Pervasive, once you get it, it is yours to keep. Personality disorders. (Enduring, rigid behavior patterns) Axis III: General Medical Conditions // Physical disorders that may be related to psychological disorders Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems // Problems in a person's life such as stressors or life events that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning // Overall level of mental, social, occupational and leisure functioning Behavioral Perspective on Abnormalities // Views the behavior as the problem itself. Normal and abnormal behaviors are are responses to various stimuli. This perspective provides the most precise and objective approach for examining behavioral symptoms of specific disorders. But, critics say that the perspective ignored the rich inner world of thoughts, attitudes and emotions that may contribute to abnormal behavior. Binge Eating Disorder // Bulimia without the compensatory behavior. Accounts for 20% of the obesity rate. Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) // (Mood disorder) Combines depressive episodes and manic episodes Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms // Racing thoughts, pressured speech, lack inhibitions, promiscuity, spending sprees, gambling, feelings of omnipotence, needs significantly less sleep, high energy Bipolar Disorder: Treatment // Very inheritable // responds well to medication like lithium, depacote, neurotonin Borderline Personality Disorder // Have difficulty developing a secure sense of who they are. They tend to rely on relationships with others to define their identity. Rejections are devastating. Have difficulties trusting people and controlling their anger. - May become sad and form one-sided relationships in which they need all of the attention Bulimia: Facts // Affects mostly females, male high school wrestlers and jockeys, onset is late teens to early thirties Bulimia: Symptoms // Pattern of binging and purging. Eat large amount of food in short time then vomitting, laxatives, fasting and exercise. Distorted body image, normal to slightly overweight. Causes of anxiety disorders: Biological basis // Frontal lobes are active when in an anxious state. Anxiety disordered people are very responsive to some drugs that treat depression. Causes of anxiety disorders: Classical Conditioning // Your plane hits bad turbulence, now seeing a plane elicits fear. Causes of anxiety disorders: Observation // You see a movie about a plane crash now you fear flying because you think you could die Causes of anxiety disorders: Psychological basis // Most people think that these disorders reflect some events that occurred which is internalized. Causes of mood disorders: biological basis // (Depressive Disorders) Brain lacks serotonin can treat with SSRIs like prozac, zoloft or paxil Causes of mood disorders: environmental triggers // Stress at work, loss of a loved one, or failing a course can trigger a depressive episode Causes of mood disorders: genetic component // (Depressive Disorders) If a relative has it, it increases your odds Causes of Schizophrenia // No one really knows but there are some guesses! Causes of Schizophrenia: Brain abnormalities // Abnormal brain activity: low frontal activity high thalamus act. Causes of Schizophrenia: Dopamine // Super high levels of dopamine, lots of attempts to treat component. Causes of Schizophrenia: Environmental factors // SES family environment Causes of Schizophrenia: Genetics // No family history: 1-100 Parent/sibling: 1-10 Identical twin: 1-2 Causes of Schizophrenia: Viral infection in prenatal development // Mom get severe flu when pregnant, increases flu epidemic. Childhood Disorders - ADHD and Autism // Marked by inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for frustration and a great deal of inappropriate activity. // severe developmental disorder that impairs children's ability to communicate and relate to others. have difficulties in both verbal and nonverbal communication and may avoid social contact Cluster A: Paranoid // Unwarranted suspiciousness, finds hidden meanings in things, unforgiving of insults, holds grudges Cluster B // Dramatic, impulsive, emotional behaviors. Cluster B: Antisocial // Disregard for others, lack conscience, remorse, deceitful Cluster B: Borderline // Instable relationship patters, sees things in black and white, only attention seeking, self-destructive behaviors Cluster B: Histrionic // Excessively emotional attention seeking, must be the center of attention, shallow and shifting emotion Cluster B: Narcissistic // Egocentric world, self-importance, entitles, arrogant, overly important Cluster C // Anxious and fearful behaviors Cluster C: Avoidant // Socially inhibited, avoids interpersonal contacts, fear they will not be liked, Cluster C: Dependent // Cannot make everyday decisions, depends on others for every move they make, cannot initiate, will not disagree with others Cluster C: Obsessive Compulsive // Unlike syndrome: life long, does not come and go, less extreme. Preoccupied with lists and all work and no play, packrat, perfectionist, inflexible Cognitive Perspective on Abnormalities // People's thoughts and beliefs are central to a person's abnormal behavior. Diagnosis of disorders // Descriptions of symptoms and behaviors. Must have certain number of these symptoms then you are diagnosed. (checklist of criteria). Dissociative disorders // Disorders involving disruptions in a person memory, consciousness, or identity // very rare and very controversial Dissociative FUGUE: // Person leaves home and moves to new location, no memory of past life. Dissociative Identity Disorder/Multiple Personality Disorder // Shattering of personal identity into two or more separate but co- existing personalities. Each person has different traits, behaviors, memories. Host personality, alters, switching. DSM IV - TR // Handbook with basic organization of disorders. Dysthymia // (Mood disorder) Mildest form of depression, stil able to conduct life. Must have mild symptoms for at least two years. Expressed emotion // Characterized by family members' criticism, hostility, and emotional intrusiveness. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) // (Anxiety Disorders) A continual overanxious state. Worried, tense concerned above and beyond what is appropriate. Arousal of sympathetic nervous system.
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