PSYCHOLOGY FINAL // SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Assuming responsibility // When alone -
easy decision, when others are around, difficult decision
5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Deciding to implement the help // When
we don't implement the help, I don't feel qualified, I would look
foolish, make things worse, I would put myself in danger
5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Interpret the event as an emergency //
Does the situation require help? (a man is slumped in a doorway in
NYC/a man and a woman yelling at each other in the apartment
above you) Bystander effect: as the number of people increases, the
less likely we will interpret the event as an emergency.
5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Knowing how to help // (You see an
older woman collapse on a hot day, how do you help?) stroke vs. heart
5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Notice the event // Time pressures
Altruism // A pure desire to benefit someone else, with no benefit
(and sometimes a cost) to the helper. (example: putting one's life at
risk to save another from the burning World Trade Center)
Arousal - Dominant Response // Mere presence of others is arousing.
Arousal improves performance on easy tasks and hinders performance on hard tasks because arousal makes the "dominant
response" more likely.
Asch // Conformity in an unambiguous situation. METHOD: Groups
of subjects participate in a perceptual judgmental task. Only one
person was a real subject, but the rest were confederates. They viewed
a target line and three comparison lines. Each person says which
comparison line matches the target line. The first few trials, the
confederates say the correct line but then after all of the confederates
say the incorrect line. RESULTS: When tested alone there was a 99%
accuracy rate but when tested with the confederates 76% of subjects
conformed at least once when 37% were conforming.
Assumed-similarity Bias // The tendency to think of people as being
similar to oneself even when meeting them for the first time.
Attitude // Evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or
Attribution Theory // The theory of personality that seeks to explain
how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual's behaviors,
what the specific causes of that person's behavior are.
Bystander intervention model // People are less likely to help when
other bystanders are present. Catharsis // Process of discharging buit-up aggressive energy
Central Route Processing // Message interpretation characterized by
thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to
persuade. People are swayed in their judgement by logic, merit and
strength of their argument.
Central Traits // The major traits considered in forming impressions
Cognitive Dissonance // The conflict that occurs when a person holds
two contradictory attitudes or thoughts (referred to as cognitions.)
Companionate Love // The strong affection we have for those with
whom our lives are deeply involved. (The love we feel for parents,
family members and friends).
Compliance // Behavior that occurs in response to direct social
Conformity // A change in behavior due to real or imagined influence
of other people. (Giving into a perceived group pressure, acting in a
certain way because of others and acting differently than if you were
Darley // Studied bystander intervention or helping others in
emergencies. Hypothesized that the large number of people who witnessed the violent event decreased the willingness of any
individual to step in and help. (diffusion of responsibility) METHOD:
Students are told to talk about their experiences adjusting to college
and what problems they have. They would talk to other students on
an intercom for two minutes. Group #1: talked to one other person
Group #2: talked to two other people Group #3: talked to five other
people. One student pretends to have a seizure to feign an emergency
situation. RESULTS: Group #1 response time was one minute Group
#3 response time was over three minutes. - All of group #1
participants responded to the emergency. 85% of group #2 responded
and 60% of group three responded. The more people in the group the
loger it took for the person to report the emergency.
Deindividuation // When people are in a group, they tend to loosen
normal constraints on behavior, leading to an increase in impulsive,
and sometimes deviant act.
Diffusion of responsibility // As the number of witnesses increase, the
feelings of personal responsibility decreases
Dispositional Causes // Perceived causes of behavior that are based
on internal traits or personality traits. Dominant Response // Easy tasks: success, correctness, speed //
Hard tasks: failure, errors, slow-downs
Door-in-the-face Strategy // When you make a large request, expects
it to be refused, then follows it with a smaller request.
Egotistic Helping // Ultimate goal of helping is to increase the
helper's welfare. (you take your roommate to the airport so that he wil
return the favor for you, you volunteer at the shelter because it make
you feel good)
Examples of conformity // Teenagers dressing alike/laughing at a bad
Factors that change our attitudes: // 1) message source 2)
characteristics of the message 3) characteristics of the target
Factors that increase Destructive Obedience // Emotional distance of
the victim/real distance of the authority figure/transfer of
responsibility/legitimacy of authority figure/institution/pace of the
commands/small increments in obedience --> greater destruction
Foot-in-the-door Strategy // You ask a person to agree to a small
request and later ask that person to comply with a more important
one. Fundamental Attribution Bias // The tendency to exaggerate the
importance of personality characteristics in producing others'
behaviors and minimize the the influence of the environment. (We
are more likely to jump to the concl