PSYCHOLOGY FINAL: Social Psychology

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Psychology & Brain Sciences

PSYCHOLOGY FINAL // SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Assuming responsibility // When alone - easy decision, when others are around, difficult decision 5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Deciding to implement the help // When we don't implement the help, I don't feel qualified, I would look foolish, make things worse, I would put myself in danger 5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Interpret the event as an emergency // Does the situation require help? (a man is slumped in a doorway in NYC/a man and a woman yelling at each other in the apartment above you) Bystander effect: as the number of people increases, the less likely we will interpret the event as an emergency. 5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Knowing how to help // (You see an older woman collapse on a hot day, how do you help?) stroke vs. heart attack 5 Steps to Deciding to Help: Notice the event // Time pressures Altruism // A pure desire to benefit someone else, with no benefit (and sometimes a cost) to the helper. (example: putting one's life at risk to save another from the burning World Trade Center) Arousal - Dominant Response // Mere presence of others is arousing. Arousal improves performance on easy tasks and hinders performance on hard tasks because arousal makes the "dominant response" more likely. Asch // Conformity in an unambiguous situation. METHOD: Groups of subjects participate in a perceptual judgmental task. Only one person was a real subject, but the rest were confederates. They viewed a target line and three comparison lines. Each person says which comparison line matches the target line. The first few trials, the confederates say the correct line but then after all of the confederates say the incorrect line. RESULTS: When tested alone there was a 99% accuracy rate but when tested with the confederates 76% of subjects conformed at least once when 37% were conforming. Assumed-similarity Bias // The tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself even when meeting them for the first time. Attitude // Evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or concept. Attribution Theory // The theory of personality that seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual's behaviors, what the specific causes of that person's behavior are. Bystander intervention model // People are less likely to help when other bystanders are present. Catharsis // Process of discharging buit-up aggressive energy Central Route Processing // Message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade. People are swayed in their judgement by logic, merit and strength of their argument. Central Traits // The major traits considered in forming impressions of others. Cognitive Dissonance // The conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts (referred to as cognitions.) Companionate Love // The strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved. (The love we feel for parents, family members and friends). Compliance // Behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure. Conformity // A change in behavior due to real or imagined influence of other people. (Giving into a perceived group pressure, acting in a certain way because of others and acting differently than if you were alone). Darley // Studied bystander intervention or helping others in emergencies. Hypothesized that the large number of people who witnessed the violent event decreased the willingness of any individual to step in and help. (diffusion of responsibility) METHOD: Students are told to talk about their experiences adjusting to college and what problems they have. They would talk to other students on an intercom for two minutes. Group #1: talked to one other person Group #2: talked to two other people Group #3: talked to five other people. One student pretends to have a seizure to feign an emergency situation. RESULTS: Group #1 response time was one minute Group #3 response time was over three minutes. - All of group #1 participants responded to the emergency. 85% of group #2 responded and 60% of group three responded. The more people in the group the loger it took for the person to report the emergency. Deindividuation // When people are in a group, they tend to loosen normal constraints on behavior, leading to an increase in impulsive, and sometimes deviant act. Diffusion of responsibility // As the number of witnesses increase, the feelings of personal responsibility decreases Dispositional Causes // Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality traits. Dominant Response // Easy tasks: success, correctness, speed // Hard tasks: failure, errors, slow-downs Door-in-the-face Strategy // When you make a large request, expects it to be refused, then follows it with a smaller request. Egotistic Helping // Ultimate goal of helping is to increase the helper's welfare. (you take your roommate to the airport so that he wil return the favor for you, you volunteer at the shelter because it make you feel good) Examples of conformity // Teenagers dressing alike/laughing at a bad joke Factors that change our attitudes: // 1) message source 2) characteristics of the message 3) characteristics of the target Factors that increase Destructive Obedience // Emotional distance of the victim/real distance of the authority figure/transfer of responsibility/legitimacy of authority figure/institution/pace of the commands/small increments in obedience --> greater destruction Foot-in-the-door Strategy // You ask a person to agree to a small request and later ask that person to comply with a more important one. Fundamental Attribution Bias // The tendency to exaggerate the importance of personality characteristics in producing others' behaviors and minimize the the influence of the environment. (We are more likely to jump to the concl
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