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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Christina Engfer

Psychology 100  Behavior perspective: emphasizes conditioning of behavior by environmental events  Sociocultural perspective: influence of social environment  We behave as we do because of our past conditioning of environment o Classical conditioning is important: operant conditioning more important o Reinforced for behavior: probability increases o Environmental events control behavior by reinforcing/punishing nature  Sociocultural  Bystander effect: probability of something happening is higher when there’s only 1 than more  Behavioral learning principles of reinforcement and imitation in language acquisition  Hindsight bias: the tendency, after learning an outcome, to be overconfident to have predicted it  Experimental finding: results seem predictable o Works to make research conclusions seem obvious o False knowledge: disappointment   Psychologist conclusions are research-based  Sociocultural context of language helps children learn pragmatic functions of language  Biological psychologists look at biological aspect of psychology: chemical and biological makeup  Psychology: the behavioral sciences o Observational techniques, case studies, survey research o Observational training: observing behavior o Case Study: Study for an extended time o Survey research: Surveying in a non-controlled background  Choose representative sample of relevant population  People picked at random  Correlational study: get examples, take measurements, +/- correlation  Scatterplots: indicate perfect negative correlation  Placebo effect: you think something happens but it doesn’t  Statistical analysis: Scientists can draw conclusions  Double-blind procedure: Experimenters and participants don’t know what you’re getting  Meta-analysis: combines results of many studies into one analysis  Measure of central tendency: the average, mode and median  Bell curve: a section of results separated  Skewed distribution: a number of results are skewed off by outliers  The science of Psychology: behavior and mental processes  Attempt to understand…  1. Observable behavior: speech and physical movement  2: Mental behavior: motives  Perspective emphasizing internal and external behavior  Biological: views physiological hardware as major determinants of behavior and mental processing  Cognitive: how mental processes influence behavior o Why people get depressed: lack of chemicals o How to treat: take drugs: get better and replenish lacking chemicals o mood is a part of function of brain chemistry o can explain behavioral problems and make it better understood o “this is what it looks like” through research  study involvement of parts of brain and mental processing  e.g. vision is in back of head  Focuses on reasons like how something happens o If we blame ourselves for all our setbacks, we might start to feel poorly about ourselves o If we realize our perspective: we feel better  Behavioral: we do because of past conditioning  Sociocultural: focuses on behavior of other people and culture on our behavior and mental processing  Classical conditioning: learn how we fear and emotional responses and other behaviors o –different parts of the brain (motivation, consequences, learned behavior)  Operant conditioning: relationship behavior and environmental consequences o Huge motivator in doing something  B.F. Skinner: father of classical conditioning o Making associations (e.g. smell tied to memory) o Learn about people and what they display  Research methods!  Descriptive methods: observational techniques, case studies, survey research o Naturalistic: happens in provisional setting o Participant: observer is a part of group being observed (like undercover police work)  Used to see how humans and animals behave in natural environments o –used in school, workplace, bars, etc.  Participant begins study as participant  Case studies: research studies individual in-depth over extended period of time o Used in clinical studies to gather info that’ll help in treatment can’t be generalized to other people o Allow researchers to develop hypotheses  Survey Research: uses questionnaires and interviews to collect info about beavhior, beliefs, and attitudes o –hoarding, order, structure may lead to different answers o population surveyed: representative sample is surveyed (need enough) o some can’t represent the whole group  Reliable: will it yield the same results?  Validity: did the test study say what it was going to study/.  Random Sampling: everyone gets a chance to be a part of the ample o –allows researchers to generalize findings from sample to large population  Correlational methods: o Coefficient: type and strength between two variables  Positive Correlation: direct relationship between two variables o E.g. SAT linked to performance in college  Negative correlation: inverse relationship o Strength of relationship: 0 and absolute 0 mean no relationship  3 . Variable problem: can’t draw cause/effect relationship  Placebo group: part who believe theyr’e receiving treatment but aren’t o Effect: improvement from belief they’re getting treatment  Descriptive statistics: describe the statistics (tendency, variability)  Inferential: to infer statistics  Standard deviation: average extent to how far from the mean you are  Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord (CNS)  Peripheral nervous system: remainder of nervous system throughout body, linking CNS with sensory receptors, muscles and glands (PNS) o Autonomic nervous system: important in emotional expression  Inter neurons” use information in CNS and communicate between sensory and motor  Sensory neurons: carry into the CNS from senses, glands, and muscles  Motor Neurons: in PNS and carry movement commands from CNS to rest of body o Many sensory neurons = sensory nerves o Must enter CNS through spinal cord and some enter brain through holes in cranium  Spinal cord functions: serves as conduit for incoming data and outgoing communication to muscles o Spinal reflex: automatic action not requiring brain (e.g. knee jerk)  Sensory neurons connect with interneurons in spinal cord: to connect with motor neurons  Sensory info sent to brain by interneurons: brain not usually involved  E.g. withdrawal reflex: touch something hot, jerk away form object  Brain can stop spinal reflex by commanding to override reflexive response  Glial cells are the support system for the neuronwaste removal and environmental management  Neuron: dendrite: receive stuff from other neurons o Axon: fiber to conduit neural impulse o Cell body: has nucleus and other biological machinery to keep cell alive o Electrical impulse: excitatory exceeds inhibitory o Myelin sheath: speeds up axon travel o Myelinated axons make up white matter o Neurotransmitter: transmits stuff between neurons o fMRI: amount of O2 brought to various areas o PET scan: focus on glucose levels o Dopamine: regulates mood and arousal o Serotonin and norepinephrine: regulates mood, arousal, sleep, and eating o Endorphins: happy chemicals  Addiction issues linked to endorphins: drugs attached to endorphins  Lock and key system rigged o Has effect on biological and effects placebo on pain  Somatic nervous system: carries sensory input from receptors to CNS and relay CNS skeletal muscles for movement  Autonomic nervous system: regulates interval movement  Sympathetic nervous system: “fight or flight” response  Endocrine Glandular System: hormones secreted from endocrine and travel to target sites  Hormones: produced by endocrine gland and travels through the body  Pheromones: external hormones from body: influences a lot  Many emotions accompanied by bodily functions o Emotion determined by cognitive appraisal of situation to deter into specific emotions and intensity o Communication within a neuron is electrical o Between a neuron is chemical o Agonists: increase activity o Antagonists: decrease activity o GABA: inhibitory neurotransmitter in NS: glutamate main excitatory NT o Acetocholine (ACh) o Antidepressant drugs block reuptake of serotonin o Glutamate: involved in memory storage and pain  Excessive glutamate can lead to neuron death: can explain schizophrenia o Morphine and heroin are agonists: bind receptor sites: endorphin up o Interneurons in CNS o Sensory: CNS from sensory receptors: eyes, glands, muscles o Motor: movement from CNS: whole body  Spinal cord: conduit for incoming sensory data and outgoing movement commands  Spinal reflexes: not simple automatic actions not in brain  Brain: center of CNS  PNS: gathers info about external environment  Endocrine glandular system: not part of NS o –secrete hormones: chemicals carried by bloodstream to target sites throughout body o controlled by hypothalamus  Emotion: physical, behavioral, cognitive  Physical: fight/flight  Theories of emotion o James-Lange: ANS physiological arousal is a response to stimulus o Cannon-Bard: Arousal pattersn fro diff. emotions too physically alike to be understood o Schacter-singer: Two factor: Physical arousal tells The Brain  Brainstem o Medulla: links spinal cord and brain o Reticular formation: neurons running up to brain stem and thalamus  Cerebellum: coordination of movements, balance, procedural and motor learning  Thalamus: top of brain stem o Amygdala deals with anger  -Major role in regulating emotional experiences, especially fear, anger, and aggression  Limbic System: role in survival, memory, and emotions o Hypothalamus: pituitary gland, Autonomic Nervous System, major role in drives of eating, thirst, arousal o Hippocampus: formation of memories  Cerebral cortex: most important in brain structure o Frontal lobe: front of each hemisphere and front of centra and above the lateral fissure o Parietal lobe: be
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