Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Encompasses emotions, thoughts, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, biological activities.
Behavioral genetics: inheritance of traits related to behavior Experimental psychology: perceiving etc
Behavioral neuroscience: How bodies influence behavior Cognitive psychology: higher mental processes: thinking etc.
Evolutionary Psychology: behavior influence by genetic inheritance from ancestors
Clinical Neuropsychology: unites areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology, origin of psychological disorders in biological factors.
PhD: research degree PsyD: treatment of psychological disorders Psychiatrists: physicians specialize in treatment of psychological disorders
Structuralism: Wundt’s approach focuses uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, other mental states and activities.
Introspection: Procedure used to study the structure of mind in which subjects asked describe detail what experiencing when exposed to stimulus.
Functionalism: Replaced structuralism. What mind does and behavior functions and adapt to environments.
Gestalt psychology: emphasizes organization of perception and thinking a “whole” rather than individual.
-Margaret Floy Washburn first woman to receive doctorate in psychology animal behavior.
Hollingworth child development.
Neuroscience, function biologically and thru perspective of brain.
Psychodynamic perspective no control or little awareness, observable behavior rather than mental behavior.
Behavioral perspective: rejection of psychology emphasis on inner working of mind. Should be focused on observable behavior.
Cognitive perspective: focuses on how people think, understand, and knowledge of world
Humanistic perspective: suggests all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of lives and behavior.
Determinism: beyond personal control.
Neuroscience: Nature (heredity), unconscious, internal emphasis, determinism, universal emphasis
Psychodynamic: nature, unconscious, internal emphasis, determinism , universal emphasis
Behavioral: nurture (enviro.) conscious, observable determinism, individual and universal,
Cognitive: both, both, internal, free will, individual
Humanistic: nurture, conscious, internal, free will, individual
Free will: idea, behavior caused by choices made freely
Determinism: people’s behavior produced by factors outside of willful control
Ch2 scientific method approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. 1.)
Question2) formulating explanation 3.) carry out research 4.) communicate findings.
Theories: broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest.
Bibb Latane john Darley, Diffusion of responsibility theory, bystanders/ witnesses share responsibility. >amount of bystanders in situation less likely any person will help.
Hypothesis: a prediction stemming from theory, stated in a way allows testing.
Operational definition: translation of hypothesis to specific, testable procedures, measurable/observable.
THEORY BROAD, Hypothesis narrow.
Archival Research: Existing data examined to test hypothesis. Drawbacks, incomplete, collected haphazardly/ do not exist.
Naturalistic observation: Researcher observes naturally occurring behavior and does not make change in situation.
drawback, no control of factors of interest, people may not produce representative behavior.--
Survey research: sample, chosen to represent larger population, asked questions about behavior, thoughts, attitudes.
Downfall, lying, not representative of population possibly,
Case Study: in-depth, intensive investigation of individual or small group of people.
Drawback, impossible to make valid generalizations to larger population.
Variables: behaviors, events etc change/vary some way
Correlational research : Relationship between two sets of variables examined whether associated/”Correlated”
Correlation coefficient: +1-1 strength and direction of relationship DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION FOR CORRELATION.
Positive correlation value of 1 variable increases, other will also increase
Negative correlation as 1 variable increases other decreases. Lack of correlation close to zero.
EXPERIMENT ONLY way to establish cause/effect relationships, relationship btwn 2>variables, deliberately producing change in 1 variable in situation and
observing effects of that change on other aspects of situation.
Experimental Manipulation: Change an experimenter deliberately produces in situation. detect relationships btwn different variables.
Treatment: manipulation implemented by experimenter
Experimental group: Group participating in treatment Control: group participating in experiment, receives no treatment.
Independent Variable: manipulated by experimenter.
Dependent: Measured and expected to change as result of changes caused by experimenter’s manipulation of independent variable.
Random Assignment: participants assigned to different experimental groups/conditions on basis of chance alone.
Significant outcome: Meaningful results, possible for researchers to feel confident that hypothesis has been confirmed.
Replication: Repeating research using other procedures, settings, groups to increase confidence prior to findings. Question of interest, Formulated explanation, carried
out research, communicated findings. important in experiment.
Informed Consent: Document signed by participants affirming they’ve been told outlines and aware of involvement.
Experimental Bio: Factors distort how independent variable affects dependent variable in experiment.
Experimenter Expectationsunintentionally hints expected behavior.
Participant Expectations: Expectation of participant form own hypothesis and change outcome to fit their hypothesis.
Placebo: a false treatment that has no significance. Double Blind Procedure to prevent bias.
Animal Research: Life spans are shorter .
Neurons: Nerve cells, basic elements of nervous system. contain cell body(w/nucleus), held in place by glial cells(Provide nourishment, support neural
functioning)., dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons, synapse.
Dendrite: cluster of fibers at one end of neuron receives message
Axon: carries messages for other neurons, travel like impulses.
Terminal Buttons: small bulges at end of axons that send message to other neurons.
Myelin sheath: protective coating of fat and protein wraps axon, increase velocity of impulses in axons.
All-or-none law: neurons are either on or off Resting state: -70mV
Action potential: electric nerve impulse travels through neuron’s axon when set off by trigger changing neuron’s charge from +,-
Change in frequency to increase speed of impulse, not speed or strength of impulse.
Mirror neurons: specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts particular behavior, but also observing another similar behavior(empathy)
imitation may be inborn behavior, root of empathy, concern, compassion, language etc.
Synapse: chemical bridge between neurons, uses chemicals to communicate.
Neurotransmitters: chemicals carry messages across synapse to dendrite of receiving neuron. electrically through neuron, chemically in btwn neurons.
Excitatory message: chemical message that increases likelihood of receiving neuron will fire an A.P along axon.
Inhibitory: Chemical that prevents/decreases likelihood of firing. reuptake, reabsorption of neurotransmitters by terminal button. (SSRI, Selective Serotonin
excess of Neurotransmitters or deficiency, causes sever behavior disorders. AcH(acetycholine), mvmt, messages about skeletal muscles memory, etc.
Glutamate: plays a role in memory, GABA: found in brain and spinal, primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, moderates aggression, eating
Dopamine: involved in mvmt, attention, learning. Parkinson’s disease, deficiency of dopamine, Schizophrenia, overproduction of dopamine. Serotonin: associated w/ regulation of sleep, eating, mood, pain(depression). Endorphins: painkillers. Euphoric feeling i