Cheat Sheet for Exam 1(Everything you need to know!)

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences

Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Encompasses emotions, thoughts, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, biological activities. Behavioral genetics: inheritance of traits related to behavior Experimental psychology: perceiving etc Behavioral neuroscience: How bodies influence behavior Cognitive psychology: higher mental processes: thinking etc. Evolutionary Psychology: behavior influence by genetic inheritance from ancestors Clinical Neuropsychology: unites areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology, origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. PhD: research degree PsyD: treatment of psychological disorders Psychiatrists: physicians specialize in treatment of psychological disorders Structuralism: Wundt’s approach focuses uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, other mental states and activities. Introspection: Procedure used to study the structure of mind in which subjects asked describe detail what experiencing when exposed to stimulus. Functionalism: Replaced structuralism. What mind does and behavior functions and adapt to environments. Gestalt psychology: emphasizes organization of perception and thinking a “whole” rather than individual. -Margaret Floy Washburn first woman to receive doctorate in psychology animal behavior. Hollingworth child development. Neuroscience, function biologically and thru perspective of brain. Psychodynamic perspective no control or little awareness, observable behavior rather than mental behavior. Behavioral perspective: rejection of psychology emphasis on inner working of mind. Should be focused on observable behavior. Cognitive perspective: focuses on how people think, understand, and knowledge of world Humanistic perspective: suggests all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of lives and behavior. Determinism: beyond personal control. Neuroscience: Nature (heredity), unconscious, internal emphasis, determinism, universal emphasis Psychodynamic: nature, unconscious, internal emphasis, determinism , universal emphasis Behavioral: nurture (enviro.) conscious, observable determinism, individual and universal, Cognitive: both, both, internal, free will, individual Humanistic: nurture, conscious, internal, free will, individual Free will: idea, behavior caused by choices made freely Determinism: people’s behavior produced by factors outside of willful control Ch2 scientific method approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. 1.) Question2) formulating explanation 3.) carry out research 4.) communicate findings. Theories: broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest. Bibb Latane john Darley, Diffusion of responsibility theory, bystanders/ witnesses share responsibility. >amount of bystanders in situation less likely any person will help. Hypothesis: a prediction stemming from theory, stated in a way allows testing. Operational definition: translation of hypothesis to specific, testable procedures, measurable/observable. THEORY BROAD, Hypothesis narrow. Archival Research: Existing data examined to test hypothesis. Drawbacks, incomplete, collected haphazardly/ do not exist. Naturalistic observation: Researcher observes naturally occurring behavior and does not make change in situation.  drawback, no control of factors of interest, people may not produce representative behavior.-- Survey research: sample, chosen to represent larger population, asked questions about behavior, thoughts, attitudes. Downfall, lying, not representative of population possibly, Case Study: in-depth, intensive investigation of individual or small group of people. Drawback, impossible to make valid generalizations to larger population. Variables: behaviors, events etc change/vary some way Correlational research : Relationship between two sets of variables examined whether associated/”Correlated” Correlation coefficient: +1-1 strength and direction of relationship DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION FOR CORRELATION. Positive correlation value of 1 variable increases, other will also increase Negative correlation as 1 variable increases other decreases. Lack of correlation close to zero. EXPERIMENT ONLY way to establish cause/effect relationships, relationship btwn 2>variables, deliberately producing change in 1 variable in situation and observing effects of that change on other aspects of situation. Experimental Manipulation: Change an experimenter deliberately produces in situation.  detect relationships btwn different variables. Treatment: manipulation implemented by experimenter Experimental group: Group participating in treatment Control: group participating in experiment, receives no treatment. Independent Variable: manipulated by experimenter. Dependent: Measured and expected to change as result of changes caused by experimenter’s manipulation of independent variable. Random Assignment: participants assigned to different experimental groups/conditions on basis of chance alone. Significant outcome: Meaningful results, possible for researchers to feel confident that hypothesis has been confirmed. Replication: Repeating research using other procedures, settings, groups to increase confidence prior to findings.  Question of interest, Formulated explanation, carried out research, communicated findings.  important in experiment. Informed Consent: Document signed by participants affirming they’ve been told outlines and aware of involvement. Experimental Bio: Factors distort how independent variable affects dependent variable in experiment. Experimenter Expectationsunintentionally hints expected behavior. Participant Expectations: Expectation of participant form own hypothesis and change outcome to fit their hypothesis. Placebo: a false treatment that has no significance. Double Blind Procedure to prevent bias. Animal Research: Life spans are shorter . CH3 Neurons: Nerve cells, basic elements of nervous system.  contain cell body(w/nucleus), held in place by glial cells(Provide nourishment, support neural functioning)., dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons, synapse. Dendrite: cluster of fibers at one end of neuron receives message Axon: carries messages for other neurons, travel like impulses. Terminal Buttons: small bulges at end of axons that send message to other neurons. Myelin sheath: protective coating of fat and protein wraps axon, increase velocity of impulses in axons. All-or-none law: neurons are either on or off Resting state: -70mV Action potential: electric nerve impulse travels through neuron’s axon when set off by trigger changing neuron’s charge from +,- Change in frequency to increase speed of impulse, not speed or strength of impulse. Mirror neurons: specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts particular behavior, but also observing another similar behavior(empathy)  imitation may be inborn behavior, root of empathy, concern, compassion, language etc. Synapse: chemical bridge between neurons, uses chemicals to communicate. Neurotransmitters: chemicals carry messages across synapse to dendrite of receiving neuron. electrically through neuron, chemically in btwn neurons. Excitatory message: chemical message that increases likelihood of receiving neuron will fire an A.P along axon. Inhibitory: Chemical that prevents/decreases likelihood of firing. reuptake, reabsorption of neurotransmitters by terminal button. (SSRI, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors). excess of Neurotransmitters or deficiency, causes sever behavior disorders.  AcH(acetycholine), mvmt, messages about skeletal muscles memory, etc. Glutamate: plays a role in memory, GABA: found in brain and spinal, primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, moderates aggression, eating Dopamine: involved in mvmt, attention, learning. Parkinson’s disease, deficiency of dopamine, Schizophrenia, overproduction of dopamine. Serotonin: associated w/ regulation of sleep, eating, mood, pain(depression). Endorphins: painkillers. Euphoric feeling i
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