Cheat Sheet for Exam 3 (Everything you need to know for the exam)

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences

Activity theory: Suggests the elderly, most successful while aging maintain interests and activities from middle age. Adolescence: developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.Age of viability: Point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely approx. prenatal age 22 weeks. AIDS: Sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus that destroys the body’s immune system. Alzheimer’s: Progressive brain disorder that leads to gradual, irreversible decline in cognitive abilities. Amygdala: in the brain’s temporal lobe is important in experience of emotions and links perception and recall of it later. Anorexia nervosa: Sever eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance are unusual. Anorgasmia: lack of orgasm. Arousal approaches to motivation: Belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing/recuing them as necessary. Attachment: Positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.Authoritarian Parents: Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children. Authoritative parents Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them. Autonomy V. shame,doubt: Period from 1.5-3 yrs, encouraged/restricted.Babinski reflex: toes fan out when outer edge of the sole of the foot is stroked. Benevolent sexism: stereotyped and restrictive attitudes that appear to be beneficial to women. Bisexuals: Persons who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex and the other sex. Bisocial Approach: one important source of gender differences is difference in physical capabilities of men and women. BMI: ratio of weight to height, body mass index, obese >30. Bulimia: Disorder in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion: Belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus. Chlamydia: disease that produces no symptoms in women and for men, it is a burning sensation during urination and discharge. Chromosomes: Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information. Cognitive Approaches to motivation: Suggest that motivation is product of people’s thoughts and expectations—cognitions. Cognitive Development: Process by which a child’s understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience.Cohort: group of people who grow up at similar times, etc. Concrete operational stage: 7-12yrs, logical thought and loss of egocentrism, reversibility. Cross-sectional research: Research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time. Date Rape: Rape in which the rapist is either a date or a romantic acquaintance. Developmental psychology: Branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life. Disengagement theory: Suggests aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, social levels.Double standard: The view that premarital sex is permissible for males but not for females. Down Syndrome: Mental retardation. Drive-Reduction Approaches: Suggest that lack of a basic biological requirement such as water produces drive to obtain that requirement. Drive: Motivational tension, arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need. Ego integrity Vs despair: later adulthood to death, review life’s accomplishments, failures. Egocentric Thought: Child views world entirely from their perspective. Embryo: A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs. Embryonic period: Lasts from week 2 to 8. Emotions: Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior (prepare for action, shape future behavior, interact more effectively). Erectile dysfunction: nability of a male to achieve/maintain erection. Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that are particularly sensitive because of the presence of an unusually rich array of nerve receptors. Excitement phase: from few minutes to over an hour, an arousing stimulus begins sequence that prepares genitals for sex. Estrogen: Class of female sex hormones. Extramarital Sex: Sexual activity between a married person and someone who is not their spouse. Facial-affect program: Activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face displays the appropriate expression. Facial-feedback hypothesis: Hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions. Fetal Period: Week 8 until birth. Fetus: a developing individual, from eight weeks after conception until birth, movements, senses, hair develop. Formal operational stage: 12-adulthood, abstract thought. Gag reflex: startle reflexGender Roles: Set of expectations, defined by a particular society, that indicate what is appropriate behavior for men and women. Sexism: Negative attitudes and behavior toward a person based on that person’s gender. Gender Schema: Mental framework that organizes and guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to gender. Gender: Perception of being male or female. Gene therapy: inject genes to correct particular diseases, limited in present day. Generativity Vs Stagnation: Erikson, middle adulthood take stock of contributions to family and society. Genes: parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted. Genetic programming: Theories suggest human cells have a built-in time limit to reproduction. Genital Herpes: virus related to cold sores, blisters/ sores that heal and break out at different times. Genital warts: warts that form on or near penis/vagina, caused by human papilloma virus. Genitals: the st Male and female sex organs. Germinal Period: 1 two weeks increasing of cells. Ghrelin: hormone tells the brain its hungry. Glass ceiling: Invisible barrier w/in an organization that prevents women from being promoted. Gonorrhea: Often no symptoms cause burning sensation during urination/ discharge, fertility problems. Habituation: Decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus. Hagaii: mood of vulnerable heartache and frustration. Heterosexuality: Sexual attraction and behavior directed to the other sex. Hippocampus: important in consolidation of memories. Androgens: male sex hormones. Homeostasis: Body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state. Homosexuals: People who are sexually attracted to members of their own sex. Hypothalamus: monitors glucose levels, monitor food intake. Identical twins: twins who are genetically identical. Identity V. Confusion: Erikson, time of major testing, determine one’s abilities for adolescents. Identity: Distinguishing character of the individual. Imprinting; Behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to first object.Incentive Approach
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