Psychology Exam 3 Notes
1. Defense Mechanisms:
a) Repression: unacceptable impulses are pushed back into the unconscious.
Ex. A woman is unable to recall that she was raped.
b) Regression: people behave at an earlier stage of development. Ex. A boss
has a temper tantrum when an employee makes a mistake.
c) Displacement: expression of unwanted feelings to a weaker person. Ex. A
brother yells at his younger sister because he got a bad grade on a test.
d) Rationalization: people provide selfjustifying explanations in place of the
actual, but threatening reason for their behavior. Ex. A student goes out
drinking before a big test rationalizes his behavior by saying the test is not
e) Denial: people refuse to accept an anxietyproducing piece of information.
Ex. A student refuses that he has failed a test.
f) Projection: people attribute unwanted impulses to someone else. Ex. A
man who is unfaithful to his wife and feels guilty suspects that his wife is
g) Sublimation: people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved
thoughts. Ex. A person with strong feelings of aggression becomes a
h) Reaction formation: unconscious impulses are expressed as their opposite
in consciousness. Ex. A mother who unconsciously resents her child acts
in a loving way towards him.
2. Psychosexual stages:
a) Oral stage (birth to 1218 months): interest in oral gratification.
b) Anal stage (1218 months to 3 years): obsession with anus, relating toilet
c) Phallic stage (3 to 56 year): interest in genitals, identification with same
d) Latency stage (56 years to adolescence): sexual concerns become
e) Genital stage (adolescence to adulthood): reemergence of sexual interests.
Fixations: conflicts or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period
in which they first occur.
Repression: the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or
unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious. 3. Id: the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to
reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, etc.
Ego: the part of the personality that provides a buffer between id and the outside
Superego: the final personality structure to develop; represents morals of society
as handed down by parents, teachers, etc.
4. Archetypes: universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or
experience. Ex. Mother archetype.
5. Adler’s theory of birth order states that birth order influences personality. His
theory of inferiority states that every child experiences the feelings of inferiority
as a result of being surrounded by adults.
6. Selfreport measures: a method of gathering data about people by asking them
questions about a sample of their behavior.
Projective personality assessment: a test in which a person is shown an
ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it.
Clinical assessment: a test that involves asking questions and making direct
Behavioral assessment: direct measures of an individual’s behavior used to
describe personality characteristics.
7. Selfactualization: a state of selffulfillment in which people realize their highest
potential, each in a unique way.
Unconditional positive regard: an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part
of an observer, no matter what a person says or does.
8. Five Factor Model traits and their qualities:
a) Openness to experience: independent, imaginative, and preference for
b) Conscientiousness: careful, disciplined, and organized.
c) Extraversion: talkative, fun loving, and sociable.
d) Agreeableness: sympathetic, kind, and appreciative.
e) Neuroticism: personality disturbance.
9. Assumptions of theories of personality
c. Developmental d. Personality
1. Types of stressors:
a) Cataclysmic events: strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically
affect many people at once. Ex. Natural disasters.
b) Personal stressors: major life events, such as death of a family member,
that have immediate negative consequences that fade by time.
c) Background stressors: everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in
traffic, that cause minor irritations.
2. Stress: a person’s response to events that are threatening and challenging.
3. Hassles: everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in traffic.
Uplifts: the minor positive events that make us feel good; even if only
4. Subjective wellbeing: people’s sense of their happiness and satisfaction with
5. Emotionfocused coping: people try to manage their emotions in the face of
stress by seeking to change the way they feel about or perceive a problem.
Problemfocused coping: attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of
6. Negativelyframed messages stress people out and positivelyframed messages
7. The stress hormone is cortisol and it’s produced by the adrenal gland.
8. Stages in the General Adaptation Syndrome:
a) Alarm and mobilization: occurs when people become aware of the
presence of a stressor.
b) Resistance: the body is actively fighting the stressor on a biological level.
c) Exhaustion: a person’s ability to fight the stressor declines to the point
where negative consequences of stress appear. Ex. Physical illness.
9. Type A behavior pattern links to coronary heart disease. It predicts who will
develop heart diseases and heart attacks. The most important component is
10. Coping methods that are used in the video are imagery, rehearsal, and breathing.
1. Major psychological disorder: a) Major depression: individual experiences prolonged periods of intense
sadness that is accompanied by a range of symptoms like low selfesteem,
guilt, and suicidality.
b) Schizophrenia: individual experiences a distorted perception of reality
and impaired thinking, behavior, affect, and motivation. Symptoms
include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, abnormal motor
behavior, and negative symptoms.
c) ADHD: people with ADHD show a number of symptoms that involve lack
of attentiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms include making careless
mistakes and excessive talking.
d) Personality disorders: traits that represent an individual’s characteristic
ways of responding develop into a fixed pattern that impairs their ability to
e) Dissociative disorders: individual develops multiple selves or
f) Somatic disorders: ind