Psychology Exam Notes
• Memory is the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.
• Encoding information is the most important for having a good memory.
• Type of memory:
1. Sensory memory: includes sight and sound and lasts for 1 second.
2. Working memory: visual/spatial store, auditory store, and central executive;
lasts for 1525 seconds.
3. Longterm memory: includes implicit and explicit memory and is stored
• Types of Longterm memory:
1. Declarative Memory: factual information. It includes Semantic memory
(general memory) and Episodic memory (personal knowledge)
2. Procedural memory: skills and habits, emotional, and priming.
• Tipofthetongue phenomenon: the inability to recall information that one
realizes one knows.
• Flashbulb memories: memories related to specific, important, or surprising
events that are recalled easily with a vivid imagery.
• Proactive interference: interference in which information learned earlier
disrupts the recall of material learned later.
• Retroactive interference: interference in which material that was learned
later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier. An
example is taking a test.
• Cue dependent forgetting: forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient
retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory.
• Implicit memory: memory that you don’t try to learn.
• Explicit memory: memory that you deliberately try to learn.
• Decay: the loss of information in memory through its nonuse.
• Types of sensory memory:
1. Echoic memory: which stores auditory memories.
2. Iconic memory: which stores visual memories.
• Recall: memory task in which specific information must be retrieved.
• Recognition: memory task in which individuals are presented with a
stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to
identify it from a list of alternatives. • Levelsofprocessing theory: the theory in memory that emphasizes the
degree to which new material is mentally analyzed.
• Retrograde amnesia: amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior
to a certain event, but not for new events.
• Anterograde amnesia: amnesia in which memory is lost for events that
follow an injury.
• Korsakoff’s syndrome: a disease that afflicts longterm alcoholics, leaving
some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat
the same story.
• Characteristics of a welldefined problem:
1. The problem has a clearly defined given state.
2. There is a finite set of operators.
3. The problem has a clear goal.
• Robin is a prototype of the concept “bird”
• Transformation Problems.
• Algorithm: a rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a
• Heuristic: a thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or
decision, but may lead to some errors.
• Insight: a sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements
that had previously appeared to be independent of one another.
• Functional fixedness: the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its
typical use. Ex. Book used to read or as a doorstop.
• Divergent thinking: thinking that generates unusual, yet nonetheless
appropriate, responses to problems or questions.
• An example of phonemes is “a” is fat and fate.
• An example of morphemes is any word or prefix.
• Nativist approach: the theory that genetically determined, innate
mechanism directs language development. (Universal language) • 75225 words
• Evidence shows that bilingual speakers have more cognitive flexibility than
• Fluid Intelligence: Intelligence that reflects the ability to reason abstractly.
Solving a puzzle is an example of fluid intelligence.
• Crystalized intelligence: the accumulation of information, skills, and
strategies that are learned through experience and can be applied in
problemsolving situations. Pretests are examples of crystalized
• Practical intelligence: according to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall
success in living.
• Types of Intelligences:
1. Musical Intelligence: skills in tasks involving music. Example:
Menuhin was an international performer by the age of 10.
2. Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence: skills in using the whole body or
various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the
construction of products or displays. Example: athletes, dancers,
3. Logicalmathematical intelligence: skills in problem solving and
scientific thinking. Example: Barbara discovered a solution to a
problem after half an hour.
4. Linguistic Intelligence: skills involved in the production and use of
language. Example: Eliot’s magazine.
5. Spatial Intelligence: Skills involving spatial configurations, such as
those used by artists and architects. Example: Turks navigate
through the sea.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence: skills in interacting with others, such as
sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions
of others. Example: socializing effectively with others.
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence: knowledge of the internal aspects of
oneself; access to one’s own feelings and emotions. Exampl