Psych 100 Final Exam Review.docx

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Susan Krauss Whitbourne

Psych 100 Final Exam Review 1. Perspectives in psychology: i. Neuroscience: biological foundation of behavior. ii. Cognitive: Higher mental processes. iii. Developmental: change over time. iv. Personality: individual differences. v. Health: how psychological factors affect health. vi. Clinical: psychological disorders and treatment. vii. Industrial-organizational: human resources and workplace assessment. viii. Social: effects of groups on behavior. ix. Experimental: learning. x. Psychodynamic: emphasizes the inner, unconscious forces within the individual. xi. Humanistic: regards humans as having unique qualities that makes us different from animals. 2. Landmarks in psychology: i. 4 Temperaments (1879): a. Choleric: angry. b. Sanguine: cheerful. c. Melancholic: sad. d. Phlegmatic: calm. ii. Blank Slate: something that has yet to be marked. iii. Introspection: record your thought, map out the thought process; structuralism: understanding the structure of the mind. iv. Stream of consciousness: activities of the mind (functionalism) v. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: our perception is guided by more than the individual components of each. 3. A theory is a well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. 4. Types of research designs: i. Archival: use existing information from an appropriate data source. ii. Naturalistic Observation: observe naturally occurring behavior in a specific set of situations iii. Survey research: Choose a sample to represent a larger population and ask them a series of questions. iv. Case study: intensively investigate an individual or small group. v. Experimental: expose participants to different conditions and compare their responses. 5. Experimental group: is a group that receives treatment. Control group: group that receives no treatment or group that receives different treatment. 6. Ethical guidelines for research: i. The participants right to privacy. ii. Voluntary participation. iii. Informed Consent. iv. Debriefing. 7. Parts of the neuron: i. Dendrites: receives input from other neurons. ii. Nucleus: contains the cell’s genes. iii. Cell body: contains structure essential to life of the cell. iv. Axon: transmits information within the neuron. v. Myelin Sheath: protective coating that speeds transmission. vi. Terminal button: sends messages to other neurons. 8. Divisions of the nervous system: i. Central Nervous system (brain and spinal cord) ii. Peripheral nervous system: a. Autonomic nervous system: communicates with internal organs and glands. It has sympathetic division (arousing) and parasympathetic division (calming). b. Somatic nervous system: communicates with sense of organs and voluntary muscles. It has sensory nervous system (sensory input) and motor nervous system (motor output) 9. Major parts of the brain: i. Hypothalamus: regulates body’s internal environment. ii. Medulla: controls breathing and heart rate. iii. Cerebellum: balance and maintain posture. iv. Pons: arousal. v. Thalamus: relay station for senses. vi. Amygdala: related to emotions. vii. Hippocampus: memory. 10.Areas within the cortex: i. Occipital lobe (rear): vision. ii. Temporal lobe (side): hearing and speech comprehension. (Wernicke’s) iii. Parietal lobe (top): sensations and spatial ability. iv. Frontal lobe (front): motor control and speech production. (Broca’s) 11.Functions of neurotransmitters: i. Acetylcholine: muscle movement and memory. ii. Glutamate: memory. iii. Gamma-amino butyric acid: eating, aggression, and sleeping. iv. Dopamine: motor control, attention, and pleasure. v. Serotonin: sleep, eating, mood, pain. vi. Endorphins: pain suppression  pleasurable feelings. 12.Cons are responsible for color vision. Rods are responsible for night vision and black & white vision. 13.Major parts of the auditory system: i. Outer Ear: includes the pinna, auditory canal, and eardrum. It helps direct sound through the ear. ii. Middle Ear: Includes hammer, anvil, and stirrup. Sends sound signals to the cochlea. iii. Inner Ear: includes cochlea and vestibular apparatus. Sends auditory information to the brain. 14.Weber’s law: the increase in a stimulus needed to produce a just- noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the initial stimulus. 15.Gestalt’s laws of organization: i. Proximity: objects that are near each other are seen as a group. ii. Closure: objects that have breaks are seen as whole. iii. Similarity: objects that are similar are seen as grouped together. iv. Simplicity: we see objects in the simplest and most straightforward manner possible. 16.Basic tastes: i. Sweet ii. Bitter iii. Sour iv. Salty v. Umami (meet and cheese) 17.Monocular cues of depth perception: i. Linear perspective: distant objects appear closer together than close objects. ii. Relative size: it two objects are the same size, the one that makes a smaller image on the retina is farther away than is the one that provides a larger image. iii. Interposition: an object blocking another object will be seen as closer to you. iv. Motion parallax: while you are moving, objects that are closer to you move more quickly than objects that are farther away. 18.Sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. 19.Freudian theory of dreaming states that dreams are based on unconscious desires. 20.Major categories of psychotropic drugs: i. Hallucinogens ii. Depressants iii. Antipsychotics iv. Anti-depressants v. Mood stabilizers vi. Hypnotics 21.Types of reinforces: i. Positive reinforcement: desired behavior occurs and then is rewarded with an outcome that the learner values so that the desired behavior comes more likely to occur. ii. Negative reinforcement: A desired behavior is not occurring, so an aversive stimulus is applied. When the desired behavior occurs, the aversive stimulus is removed which makes the desired behavior more likely to occur. 22. Classical conditioning: automatic behaviors and responses are controlled by stimuli. Operant conditioning: voluntary, often highly skilled behaviors and responses are controlled by consequences. 23.Major types of memory processes: i. Encoding: process information to store it in long-term memory ii. Retrieval: pull out information from long-term memory to use it iii. Storage: memory that is stored in short-term or long-term memory 24.Level-of-processing theory: The “deeper” the level of processing when material is being learned, the greater the chances of remembering it.At the shallowest level, you focus on the shapes or words.Amedium level involves thinking about how the word sounds, and the deepest level is to think of the word’s meaning by, for example thinking of it in a sentence. 25.The average size of a memory “chunk” is seven items 26.Divisions of long-term memory: i. In declarative, or explicit, long-term memory you are aware of having learned information, either from experience or education. ii. In non-declarative, or implicit memory, you learn or know things without being necessarily aware of having that ability or knowledge. 27.Types of processing involved in thinking critically vs. logically: i. Logical thinkers use algorithms, a strategy that always provides the right answer. ii. Creative thinkers use heuristics, using the “rule of thumb” which saves time but is not always correct. 28.Linguistic (visual knowledge), number smart (numbers, problems, math logic), body smart (athletics, dance), picture smart (viseospatial, map-reading, manipulate images), music smart (perform/know music), self-smart (Interpersonal-understand yourself), people smart (Interpersonal – getting along with others), nature smart (understand universe, nature) 29.Major components of language:  i. Phonemes: are the smallest speech sounds; they are represented not by letter but with the phonemic alphabet ii. Morphemes: are the smallest linguistic units that have meaning. They may be individual words (“the”) or separate parts of words (“er”, “s”) that are not wo
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