Exam 3 Study Guide.docx

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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course
PSYCH 217
Professor
Brian Lickel
Semester
Spring

Description
Psychology 217: Cruelty and Kindness Exam 3 Study Guide Effects of Conflict – How do people and societies recover? What are the effects of conflict? • Individual level • Societal level How do individuals and societies recover from conflict-related trauma? Consequences of Intergroup Conflict In the aftermath of violent conflict • Physical and civil infrastructure may be damaged • People may be traumatized • People may have a desire for retaliation Even in societies where “peace” has been achieved there may be • Segregation • Concerns about access to resources • Lack of trust Consequences of War and Genocide • People who survive war and genocides face long-term mental health consequences • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) o Consequence of trauma o Prone to anxiety, startle response, depression, and rumination/intrusive thoughts PTSD is Treatable • People can experience PTSD from many kinds of events o Rape o Combat o Car accidents (low rates, but happens) • PTSD is treatable o Certain kinds of cognitive-behavioral therapies and medication o Bit, harder to cope with mass trauma Example: Survivors of Cambodian Genocide now residing in the US • Recent study (Marshall et al. Cambodian Study) examined survivors of Cambodian genocide who now reside in the US • Cambodian genocide occurred in mid 1970’s o Overflow of war in Vietnam, result was civil war in Cambodia o Approximately 2 million people executed or starved to death • Among survivors, high rates of major depression (51%) and PTSD (62%) Cambodian Genocide • PTSD rate strongly linked to degree of trauma experienced during genocide • Among those who escaped to Thailand then to the US, there were extremely high rates of trauma o Essentially all faced starvation o 90% had family killed o 54% were tortured o 56% directly witnessed killings After war and genocide, resolving conflict can be extremely difficult • There are often lingering effects of conflict between groups o Historical memory: Groups do not agree on the history of the conflict (in particular, who is to blame, and to what degree) o High status/former oppressor groups often view the end of the open conflict as the end of the entire conflict  “It’s over, let’s move on” Three broad approaches to fostering intergroup reconciliation and tolerance • Societal-level strategies o Group apologies and reparations/amends o Truth and reconciliation commissions • Community-based strategies o Encourage intergroup contact and dialogue • Educational strategies o Enhance awareness of group experiences o Promote tolerance of diversity Truth and Reconciliation Commissions • After conflicts, there is an increasing use of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions to determine what happened and to facilitate formation of a new civil society • First TRC was in Chile after the end of the Pinochet regime o More famously, in SouthAfrica post-Apartheid Common Features of TRC • Focus is on learning what really happened o Generally low level perpetrators are given immunity if they come forward to tell the truth of what happened o Victims may be compensated for harm o Official apology may come from perpetrator group o High level architects of the atrocities may be brought to justice o But, the focus is on establishing a historical narrative that is truthful and does not blame victims or ignore the acts of perpetrators Does it work? • TRC approach is new • In some respects similar to German self analysis and criticism after WWII • Faces many challenges o Oppressor groups often resist  Feel themselves victimized  Do not want to be demonized  Fear prosecution, liability, revenge o Requires both sides to be able/willing to participate Contact and Intergroup Friendship Reasons for Optimism • Human behavior is complex o Propensity for violence, war, exploitation, selfishness o It’s not the case that certain groups will always be violent; the dividing lines aren’t permanent o But the propensity to be highly cooperative, altruistic, and thoughtful also present • Social and biological sciences are unpacking the roots of human behavior o Amazing complexity o Humans are an extremely social species! Some Key Insights • Much of what we consider “cruel” and “kind” behavior has its roots in human social structure • Emotion plays a very important role o Emotions are biologically embedded o … But serve an important social function o They’re not fixed reactions that we cannot control • To make the world (and people) more kind and less cruel, we must apply what we learn from research o But carefully! Consequences of Intergroup Conflict • In the aftermath of violent conflict… o Physical and civil infrastructure may be damaged o People may be traumatized o People may have a desire for retaliation • Even in societies where “peace” has been achieved, there may be… o Segregation o Concerns about access to resources o Lack of trust o Dividing lines: division between groups Three broad approaches to fostering intergroup reconciliation and tolerance • Societal-level strategies o Group apologies and reparations o Truth recovery, dispute mediation • Community-based strategies o Encourage intergroup contact and dialogue o Contact = interaction o Intergroup contact: example – people of different races interacting with each other in this class o Promote healing and willingness to trust • Educational and curricular strategies o Enhance awareness of group experiences o Promote tolerance of diversity Intergroup Contact to Reduce Prejudice • Human Relations Movement o Grew out of WWII o Started in large cities and their goal was to bring religious/ethnic groups together • Assumptions o Prejudice is rooted in the individual – understanding on the individual level; how to change bias of each person o Prejudice is due to ignorance of the true qualities of the outgroup - example: If I’m Protestant, I may not know a lot of Catholics and vice versa – I may not know them that well so I can develop biases and prejudices o 6 to 7 decades of research regarding contact  phenomenal evidence How does contact reduce prejudice? Evidence from Tropp Meta-Analysis Meta-analysis: take all the research and study and mathematically combine them! It’s powerful in telling us what’s going on overall because it provides an average; a meta-analysis can be done on anything quantitative • More contact  Less prejudice • Less contact  More prejudice • Those assumptions of the human relations movement after WWII, there is some element of truth! • So the more contact we have with people
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