Exam Three Study Guide

8 Pages

Psychology & Brain Sciences
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John Bickford

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Social Psychology, Exam Three Asch’s conformity study and variations  Unambiguous judgment.  Line test; confederates would at first give the right answer but after later trials, the confederates began to give outrageously incorrect answers. Due to the overwhelming group pressure, the participant went along with giving the wrong answer so as to avoid deviating from the group norm.  Results: about 1/3 of the time the average participant conformed to the group. At least ¾ of the participants conformed at least once, some conformed considerably more, some none. Benevolent and hostile sexism  Benevolent: Chivalrous attitude toward women that feels favorable but is actually sexist because it casts women as weak creatures in need of men’s protection. May seem harmless, noble, or romantic, but its effects can be devastating. Ideology that supports gender inequality. o Example: Women need to be protected by men.  Hostile: Antagonistic view towards women. Overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes towards women. o Example: Women are incompetent and inferior to men. Cialdini’s compliance tactics Focused on compliance. Basic principles,  Liking/friendship  Consistency  Reciprocity o Regan, 1971  Scarcity Tactics,  Ingratiation (invokes liking) o An individual attempts to become more attractive or likeable to their target.  Lowball (invokes consistency) o Get a yes to buy a car at $18,000 then come back with a final total adding in smaller costs of $19,500.  That’s-not-all principle (invokes reciprocity) o Item is $2.50 but will give it to buyer for $1.50 plus a free prize.  Playing hard to get (invokes scarcity)  Fast approaching deadline (invokes scarcity) o “act now or miss out!”  Foot-in-the door (invokes consistency) o Start with a small request then ask for a big request.  Door-in-the face (invokes norm of reciprocity-reciprocal concessions) o Start with an outlandishly large request then follow with a seemingly more realistic request.  Not-so-free sample o Feel any overwhelming urge to buy whatever was offered to you. Compliance  Changing behavior in response to direct social pressure.  Possible compliance techniques,  ask.  present information.  invoke personal beliefs.  invoke relationships.  bargain.  invoke norm.  make moral appeal.  use flattery.  criticize.  deceive.  use threats or force.  Conformity Comprehensive definition,  behavior or belief that moves toward a group consensus as a result of real or imagined group pressure / yielding to group pressure. “Eye of the Storm” video (blue eyes/brown eyes”)  Dealt with racism, teacher made students see the racist side by having them deal with it between those with blue eyes and those with brown eyes. Fein and Spencer (1997) Independent variables, 1. People receive positive or negative feedback on a test of their intellectual skills (self-esteem threatened or not threatened). 2. The job applicant to be evaluated was either Jewish or not Jewish. Dependent variable, 1. How people evaluated the job applicant. Results, 1. People who received negative feedback evaluated the Jewish applicant more negatively. 2. People who received negative feedback and evaluated the Jewish applicant negatively showed the largest increase in self-esteem. Group polarization  Group produced enhancement of member’s preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the member’s average tendency, not a split within the group / the tendency for group decisions to be more extreme than those made my individuals. Whatever way the individuals are leaning, group discussion tends to make them lean further in that direction. Why?  Involves the persuasiveness of the information brought up during group discussion and people’s tendency to claim the “right” position in the distribution of opinions within the group. Groupthink  “The mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.” Irving Janis (1971)  Faulty thinking by the highly cohesive groups in which the critical scrutiny that should be devoted to the issues at hand is subverted by social pressures to reach consensus.  Comes from a shallow examination of information, a narrow consideration of alternatives, and a sense of invulnerability and moral superiority.  Typically seen when groups are under the direction of a strong leader.  Self-censorship is the decision to withhold information or opinions.  Ways to prevent groupthink involve the leader not immediately discussing his opinion and assigning someone the role of playing the devil’s advocate. Hofling, (1966)  Replication of Milgram’s experiment.  Unknown doctors called nurses and asked them to administer twenty mg of the drug “Astroten” to a patient on the ward.  The drug before being stopped and debriefed by one of the researchers. Informational influence  Conforming to others because we think they know more than we do. o Others are more knowledgeable. o Judgment is ambiguous. Milgram obedience study and variations  Effects of punishment on learner / shock machine.  Milgram's variations: Victim pounds on wall then becomes silent  remote feedback (basic scenario) 65% Victim heard protesting  voice feedback 50% Victim in the same room  proximity 40% Teacher has to put victims hand on shock plate  touch-proximity 30% Less prestigious location  study done in Bridgeport, CT 48% Remote experimenter  telephone condition 30% Less authoritative experimenter  younger RA in street clothes has to "substitute" 20% Dissenting research assistants 10% Second experimenter  conflicting instructions 0% Teacher does not deliver shock himself 93% Teacher told to select the level of shock (control)  experimenter legitimizes all levels 3% Minimal group paradigm (Tafjel)  Positive feelings toward those in the ingroup, negative feelings toward those in outgroups.  Create groups based on seemingly meaningless criteria and examine how members of these “minimal groups” are inclined to behave toward one another. o Participants perform a trivial task and then are put into groups based on their “answers” (actually, put into groups at random). o Then, participants are put into a cubicle and are told to assign points, redeemable for money, to successive pairs of their fellow participants. o No matter what, no matter how minimal the situation is, ingroup members still exhibit a tendency to favor their minimal ingoup. Modern racism  Contrasted to old-fashioned racism.  Rejection of explicitly racist beliefs while maintaining an enduring suspicion of discomfort with or animosity toward African-Americans.  Subtle forms.  Concealed publicly, expressed when safe.  Difficult to measure.  When alone or in no view of anyone else, people are more inclined to help out black people that need help over white people BUT when there are people in plain view, people are more inclined to help white people over black people.  Example, o Televised confrontation study (Duncan, 1976).  Independent variable,  Video of argument in which a) a white man shoved a black man OR b) a black man shoved a white man.  Dependent variable,  Ratings of both men’s behavior (violent behavior,
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