PSYCH 360 - Chapter 3 Study Guide

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Linda Isbell

Chapter 3 – The Self The Self: a symbol-using, self-reflective, social being. Self-concept: The sum total of a person’s thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object. Twenty Statement Test Where does information about the self come from? 1. Experiences 2. Other people Self-Esteem: a person’s evaluations of his or her self-concept. Two Types of Self-Esteem: 1. Implicit Self-Esteem: a person’s unintentional, and perhaps unconscious, evaluation of his or her self-concept. 2. Explicit Self-Esteem: a person’s conscious and deliberate evaluation of his or her self-concept. Aself-concept develops over time. How does it develop? Through self-awareness Self-Awareness: a psychological state in which one takes oneself as an object of attention. Explain the Mirror Experiment (Baby) and how it relates to self-awareness. When sitting in front of a mirror, a baby lacks the self-awareness to understand that the person reflected in the mirror is, in fact, his/her own self. The baby attempts to play with this other person rather than focusing on the rouge spot on his/her forehead that, if he/she were self-aware, he/she would have attempted to rub off. Two Types of Self-Awareness: 1. Private Self-Awareness: a temporary state of being aware of hidden, private aspects of the self, such as your personal attitudes and beliefs, as well as your current mood. -What are its effects? a) Intensifies affect b) Clarification of knowledge c) Greater adherence to personal standards of behavior 2. Public Self-Awareness: the temporary state of being aware of public self- aspects, such as your physical appearance and the way you talk and behave in public settings. -What are its effects? a) Social uneasiness b) Temporary loss of self-esteem c) Greater adherence to social standards of behavior Remote Lounge Video Self-Awareness can either be a state (temporary) or a trait (long-term). What does this mean? To be in a state of self-awareness, one faces temporary circumstances that only affect the perceiver in the moment. To have a self-awareness trait means that a person is consciously self-aware and tends to engage in self-awareness often, to the extent that one may experience extreme emotions. Self-Consciousness: the habitual tendency to engage in self-awareness. -What are some examples of private self-consciousness? Daydreaming. -What are some examples of public self-consciousness? Tripping over a rock and turning bright red in embarrassment. -What are some pros and cons of being high in self-consciousness? Pros:Awareness of personal standards, to which they behave more in line with, stronger reactions to current moods, has more complex self-concepts. Cons: Can contribute to depression and chronic unhappiness. Self-awareness helps us to regulate our behaviors. What is self-regulation? - Self-regulation is the ways in which people control and direct their own actions. Teddy Graham Cracker Video / Marshmallow Task what are these an example of? - These are examples of delay gratification. Using self-control is tiring. What can this result in? 1. Depletion: draining of mental energy necessary for self-control. 2. Failure at self-control in a different domain: - What is an example of this? Studying for a test rather than playing a game and then later snapping when someone eats a
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