Chapter 3 – The Self
The Self: a symbol-using, self-reflective, social being.
Self-concept: The sum total of a person’s thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object.
Twenty Statement Test
Where does information about the self come from?
2. Other people
Self-Esteem: a person’s evaluations of his or her self-concept.
Two Types of Self-Esteem:
1. Implicit Self-Esteem: a person’s unintentional, and perhaps unconscious,
evaluation of his or her self-concept.
2. Explicit Self-Esteem: a person’s conscious and deliberate evaluation of his or
Aself-concept develops over time. How does it develop? Through self-awareness
Self-Awareness: a psychological state in which one takes oneself as an object of attention.
Explain the Mirror Experiment (Baby) and how it relates to self-awareness.
When sitting in front of a mirror, a baby lacks the self-awareness to understand that the person
reflected in the mirror is, in fact, his/her own self. The baby attempts to play with this other
person rather than focusing on the rouge spot on his/her forehead that, if he/she were self-aware,
he/she would have attempted to rub off.
Two Types of Self-Awareness:
1. Private Self-Awareness: a temporary state of being aware of hidden, private
aspects of the self, such as your personal attitudes and beliefs, as well as your
-What are its effects?
a) Intensifies affect
b) Clarification of knowledge
c) Greater adherence to personal standards of behavior 2. Public Self-Awareness: the temporary state of being aware of public self-
aspects, such as your physical appearance and the way you talk and behave in
-What are its effects?
a) Social uneasiness
b) Temporary loss of self-esteem
c) Greater adherence to social standards of behavior
Remote Lounge Video
Self-Awareness can either be a state (temporary) or a trait (long-term). What does this mean? To
be in a state of self-awareness, one faces temporary circumstances that only affect the perceiver
in the moment. To have a self-awareness trait means that a person is consciously self-aware and
tends to engage in self-awareness often, to the extent that one may experience extreme emotions.
Self-Consciousness: the habitual tendency to engage in self-awareness.
-What are some examples of private self-consciousness?
-What are some examples of public self-consciousness?
Tripping over a rock and turning bright red in embarrassment.
-What are some pros and cons of being high in self-consciousness?
Pros:Awareness of personal standards, to which they behave more in line with,
stronger reactions to current moods, has more complex self-concepts.
Cons: Can contribute to depression and chronic unhappiness.
Self-awareness helps us to regulate our behaviors. What is self-regulation?
- Self-regulation is the ways in which people control and direct their own actions.
Teddy Graham Cracker Video / Marshmallow Task what are these an example of?
- These are examples of delay gratification.
Using self-control is tiring. What can this result in?
1. Depletion: draining of mental energy necessary for self-control.
2. Failure at self-control in a different domain:
- What is an example of this? Studying for a test rather than playing a game and then
later snapping when someone eats a