[PSYCH 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (13 pages long)

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UMASS-Amherst
PSYCH 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psychology 100 Lecture 3
Why do we need psychology?
Not just common sense; people tend to be overconfident in knowledge
Key to understanding humans
Important Debates in Psychology
Consciousness vs Unconscious
Free will vs determinism
Individual differences vs universal
Nature vs Nurture
Research Methods of Psychology
Scientific method
descriptive research
correlational research
experimentation
Research:
Must begin with hypothesis
Hypothesis- testable prediction about something
-can come up with hypothesis due to dissatisfaction with other people's
theories
-Example: Respected scholar claimed women were genetically at a
disadvantage in terms of skill in math and science
-In disagreement, they launched an experiment which ultimately
concluded that there was no such disadvantage
-Another way to form a hypothesis is having further questions after
reading about research
-Example: If you are studying while chewing gum, you will do better if
you also chew gum during the test. People formed a new hypothesis by
questioning if this was true of other substances or states of being (like
listening to music)
How to test:
Methods Questions answered
descriptive nature of phenomenon
correlation knowing x can you predict y
experimental is x a cause of y
Descriptive-
nature of behavior or phenomenon (case studies, observations, and surveys)
Case study- examine one person in depth to understand human nature in
general
-Phineas Gage- railroad worker, a pole went through his frontal
lobe and he surprisingly survived but with much damage
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-Originally Phineas was nice and easy going but became angry and
aggressive after accident due to damage
-lead researchers to believe there was a connection between frontal
lobe and emotion
Limit and Benefits to case studies
-atypicality and limited generalizability
-useful because sometimes its something you cant do in lab (such
as traumatic head injuries)
Observational-observe people record behavior systematically, has two
types
Unintrusive observation- record behavior but do not involve
themselves in what's happening
Example: watching behavior of children at recess without
them knowing they are being observed
Participant observation-partakes or becomes involved with people
that are being studied
Example: A pair of researchers joined a cult to discover it
effects on people, due to the fact that they were not allowed
to do unintrusive observation
Limits to observational:
-lack of generalizability
-some behaviors are hard to observe because they do not
occur often or occur in private
Survey
-using questionnaire to ask people to self report behavior
-random sample selection of population to reflect whole population
trend
-Limits:
-unrepresentative samples: example- Conducting a
telephone survey in the 1930's because only the rich had a
phone
-order of questions can influence people's responses
-question wording can influence results
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