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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Carlos Valderrama

Ch. 6: Groups, Networks, Organizations Ideal type of bureaucracy 1.clear-cut hierarchy of authority 2.Written rules govern the conduct f officials at all levels of the organization 3.Officials are full time and salaried 4.Separation between tasks of an official and his home life 5.No member of the organization owns the material resources with which they operate Robert Merton: Dysfunctions of bureaucracy "Bureaucratic ritualism" Rules upheld at any cost, even if other solutions are better Following rules becomes more important than achieving goals Theories of organizations: Organic systems of organization Suited for organizations in highly volatile and uncertain industries Looser method of organization Legitimate knowledge that can be drawn on in solving problems; decisions are not the exclusive domain of people at the top Better equipped to handle the changing demands of innovative markets Mechanic systems of organization Suited for organizations that are less susceptible to marketplace fluctuations Michael Foucault: The control of space and time (timetables) in organizations "Timetables regularize activities across time and space" Surveillance in organizations Regular supervision is needed to ensure that workers sustain the pace of labor Surveillance: the supervision of activities in organizations Supervising activities of individuals or groups to ensure compliant behavior Direct supervision Keeping paper and computer files Bureaucracy and democracy Robert Michels's Iron Law of Oligarchy Large organizations tend toward centralization of power, making democracy difficult Oligarchy: rule by the few Unequal power isn't just a function of size Organizations expand in size, power relationships become looser Modern organizations: power delegated downward from superiors to subordinates Gender and organizations Bureaucracy is dependent on particular gender organization Idea of bureaucratic career was male career in which women played a supporting role Women were secretaries, clerks, receptionists so men could advance in their careers Beyond bureaucracy? Japanese model: Bottom-up decision making: no pyramid of authority, each level responsible only to the one above Less specialization: Employees specialize less than their counterparts in the West Job security: committed to long-term employment of those they hire-->employee guaranteed a job, pay and responsibility geared to seniority Group orientation: Evaluated in terms of the group's performance Merging of work and private lives Human resource management: Retooling of organizational culture to boost employee dedication to the firm and its products HumRes should be top priority for all members of company management Corporate culture approach Developing rituals, events, and traditions to promote company loyalty and work pride Information and communication technology: computers and electronic communication media like the Internet-->influences organizational structures Technology and modern organizations Changes to physical spaces Telecommuting Two-tiered occupational structure composed of technical "experts" and less- skilled production (clerical workers) Organizations as networks "Network enterprise" Information flows more easily Enhanced creativity McDonaldization of Society George Ritzer: the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society and the rest of the world Efficiency: fastest way from point A to point B Calculability: quantity over quality Uniformity: Predictability and standardization Control through automation: Workers replaced by machines International Governmental Organizations: Es8tablished by treaties between governments for conducting business between the nations making up the membership World bank, United Nations, European Union, NATO, NAFTA People join organizations to gain a social capital The social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence Feel connected, feel engaged, make a difference Bridging social capital: outward looking and inclusive unifies people across social cleavages Bonding social capital: inward looking and exclusive reinforces exclusive IDs and homogenous groups Ch. 7: Conformity, Deviance, Crime The Study of Deviant Behavior Social life is governed by norms that define some kinds of behaviors as appropriate and others as inappropriate Norms: Principles or rules people are expected to observe -Do's and Don'ts of society - Norms reflect divisions of power and class Deviance: nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a sig. number of people in a community or society -Society can't be divided by those who deviate from norms and those who conform with them -Can be perpetrated by individuals or groups -Can also apple to the activities of the groups Deviant subculture: A subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority -e.g. Heaven't Gate Cult Deviance example: nudity and bizarre clothing Grey zone: murder and sexual assault Crime: exceeding the speeding limit, underage drinking Through interactions we learn self-control-->fewer opportunities to deviate from conventional norms All social norms carry sanctions that promote conformity and protect against nonconformity Sanction: any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person/group complies with a given norm -Could be positive or negative, -Formal sanctions applied by a specific group/agency to ensure particular set of norms is followed -Informal sanctions less organized and more spontaneous reactions to nonconformity-->friends teasingly accusing a student for working too hard Laws: Rules and behavior established by a political authority and backed by state power Crime: Any action that violates the laws established by a political authority Four views of sociology of deviance: functionalist theories, interactionist theories, conflict theories, control theories Biological view of deviance -Muscular people may be drawn toward criminal activities b/c they offer opportunities to display athleticism -Some studies show some indic. might be inclined toward irritability and aggressiveness -Genetic or biological predisposition to deviance Psychological view of deviance -Deviance perpetrated by particular person -Psychopaths: Individuals who lack the moral sense and concern for others held by most normal people -Withdrawn, emotionless characters w/delight in violence for its own sake (oh hey it's me) -Not inevitably criminal-->possess convicted prisoner characteristics-->presented negatively -But if you describe it differently it sounds different -Could even be bored college students -Psychological theories of criminality can only explain some aspects of crime -Distinct abnormal personality characteristics, but not majority of criminals possess these Biological and psychological theories approach to criminality presume a sign of something wrong-->positivist Sociological theories -Definition of crime depends on a society's culture and social institutions -People decided collectively what is or is not criminal Powerful people and groups have greater influence over definition of crime Emile Durkheim: Functionalism Anomie: situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior -Saw crime and deviance as inevitable and necessary elements in modern societies Durkheim: people in the modern age are less constrained than traditional societies -No society would be in complete consensus about norms and values that govern it -Deviance has: -Adaptive functions -Boundary maintenance functions People who work hard can succeed no matter what their starting point in life BUT: most disadvantaged people have limited conventional opportunities for advancement or none at all -Those who don't "succeed" are condemned for their apparent inability to make material progress-->pressure to get ahead by any means, legitimate or illegitimate (jeff from community anyone?) Robert Merton: Typology of deviance -Five possible reactions to the tensions between socially endorsed values and limited means of achieving them -Conformists: accept generally held values and conventional means of realizing them, whether or not they meet success-->most of pop. -Innovators: accept socially approved values but use illegitimate or illegal means to follow them-->criminals who act. wealth through ill. activities -Ritualists: conform to socially accepted standards although they have lost sight of the underlying values-->compulsively follow rules for their own sake -Retreatists: abandoned competitive outlook, rejecting both the dominant values and the approved means of achieving them -Rebels: reject both existing values and means of achieving them, but work to substitute new ones and reconstruct the social system-->radical political groups -Some subcultural groups adopt norms that encourage or reward criminal behavior-->gang fight! Cohen: argued that frustrated boys in lower working class often join delinquent subcultures (gangs)-->replace middle-class values with norms that celebrate nonconformity and defiance, such as delinquency Symbolic interactionism -Differential association: Criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime -Learned within primary groups, particularly peer groups Sees criminal activities as learned in the same way as law-abiding ones and as serving the same needs and values Howard Becker: labeling theory: People become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others -e.g. being a pot smoker depended on one's acceptance by and close association with experienced users and on one's attitudes towards nonusers -Process of interaction between deviants and non deviants -Those who rep. law and order or who impose definitions of morality on others do most of the labeling-->terms of which deviance is defined express the power structure of society-->rules are framed by the wealthy for the poor, by men for women, by older people for younger people, by ethnic majorities for minority groups -Child labelled delinquent-->everyone deems him untrustworthy Primary deviation: initial act of transgression Secondary deviation: the individual accepts the label and sees themselves as a deviant Conflict theory of deviance: Deviance is a deliberate choice and often political in nature New criminology: Crime and deviance can only be understood in the context of power and inequality in society Control theory: Criminals are rational actors who try to maximize their rewards unless social or physical controls make it impossible -Zero-tolerance and target-hardening policies Target hardening: making it more difficult for crimes to occur by intervening in potential crime situations Broken windows theory: underpinned policing strategies that aggressively focused on minor crimes such as traffic violations and drinking or using drugs in public -Proactive policing at maintaining public order can reduce occurrence of more serious crimes BUT: lacks systematic definition of disorder-->police can see almost anything as a sign of disorder and anyone as a threat (racial profiling anyone?) Travis Hirschi: Strong bonds provide social controls that prevent deviance Linking sociology: Saints and Roughnecks (1973) Saints: upper-middle class families Roughnecks: poor families Both involved in similar criminal activities, neither group was more delinquent than the other -Upper-class gang members had cars and remove themselves from the community-->harmless pranks -Lower-class boys congregated in a public area-->criminalistic -Difference in class structure Labelling theory used to understand crimes and motives Office crime stats include: -About half of all serious crimes -A much smaller percentage of less serious crimes US Census data reveals higher numbers of crimes Gender and Crime Men are more ne'er-do-gooders than women Women's domestic role prevents them from so, but are more natural and deceitful in covering up their crimes -learned to hide pain and discomfort of menstruation from men-->great fakers!!! -male police are more chivalrous towards women Chivalry thesis 6.Police and other officials regard female offenders as less dangerous than men and excuse activities for which males would be arrested 7.In sentencing for criminal offenses, women gets net to prison much less often than men but results are inconclusive Women receive harsher treatment when allegedly deviated from the norms of female sexuality -e.g. young girls allegedly more sexually promiscuous more often taken into custody than boys -Making female crimes more noticeable: conducted detailed investigations on female criminals -Female lawbreakers avoid coming before courts b/c they persuade the police to see their actions in a particular light Gender contract: the implicit contract between men and women whereby to be a woman is to be erratic and impulsive on one hand, and in need of protection on the other Crimes against women -Rape is overlooked in the court of justice -Women may want to put the incident out of their minds or unwilling to participate in medical examination, police interrogation, and courtroom CX -Courtroom is public and victim must face the accused -Proof of penetration, ID rapist, the act occurred without consent -Will often CX sexual history -Rape isn't an offense but a violent crime, assault on indic. integrity and dignity-- >assc. with masculinity with power, dominance, toughness -All women are victims of rape-->women who have never been raped might be afraid to go out alone at night, even on crowded streets or afraid of being alone in a house -System of male intimidation that keeps women at bay -Those not raped are affected by anxieties Crimes against Gays and Lesbians -Understanding of violence are highly gendered and influenced by perceptions about risk and responsibility -Women less able to defend themselves-->should mod their behavior to reduce the risk of victimhood -Women shouldn't dress provocatively, otherwise asking for trouble -Happening since the '70s -Many crimes go unreported -Many members of the LGBT community marginalized and shamed by the public, deserving of crime rather than being innocent victims -LGBT displays of affection should be behind curtains-->heterosexuality is the social norm (homosexual panic) -Hate crime denies both essential personhood and right to life of the victims Youth and crime Young people often taken as indicator of health and welfare of their society -Arrests peak at around 18-19 yrs and decline thereafter -Youth criminality ≠ social reality Crimes of the powerful White-collar crime: Criminal activities carried out by those in professional occupations -Tax fraud, embezzlement, illegal environmental pollution, manufacture or sale of dangerous products -More money involved than other crimes -Greater reach than other crimes Corporate crime: Offenses committed by large corporations -Administrative, environmental, financial, labor, manufacturing, unfair trade practice crimes -Affects financial, physical health of many different people -Affects businesses and other organizations Organized crime: Criminal activities carried out by organizations established as businesses -Illegal gambling, prostitution, racketeering, trafficking of humans, drugs, and weapons -Increasingly international -Criminal networks -International law enforcement involved Cybercrime: Criminal activities by means of electronic networks or involving the use of new information technologies -Electronic money laundering, personal ID theft, electronic vandalism, monitoring electronic communications -Very costly to businesses -Many businesses do not report it Crime reduction strategies Are prisons the answer? -Very costly $$$$$ -Prisons are overcrowded -Most serious crimes in prisons go undetected -Building more prisons is like building more graveyards during a plague Policing -Presence of police reassure the public-->perception that police actively control crime, investigate offense, support criminal justice system Provincial motor registry req. info about location of accident and vehicles and people involved-->risk profiling Automobile industry needs to know about vehicles involved to improve safety Insurance companies involved need info to det. responsibility and make awards in the case Public health system req. details on injuries-->stats Criminal courts req. police info as material for prosecution and as proof that the scene was properly investigated and evidence collected Police admin req. reports of incident for int. rec and natl. comps Fearful citizens stay off streets, avoid certain neighborhoods, and curtail normal activities and associations-->withdraw from roles of mutual support Community policing: a renewed emphasis on crime prevention rather than law enforcement to reintegrate policing within the community -Shaming as punishment -To maintain one's ties to the community, the offender is shamed or threatened with shaming John Braithwaite: -Stigmatizing shaming: labeling theory-->marginalize individual, reinforce the person's criminal conduct-->may lead to future criminal behavior -Reintegrative shaming: family members, employers, coworkers, and friends bought into court to state their condemnation of the offender's behavior-->must accept responsibility for reintegrating the offender back into comm. Ch. 8: Stratification, class, and inequality Status: the social honor or prestige given to a particular group by other members of society -Impt. to teenagers b/c they lack power in larger society -Caught btwn. childhood and adulthood, they create their own social worlds in which they derive some type of power Social stratification: How individuals and social groups are divided in society and the inequalities of wealth and power that result Structured inequalities: Social inequalities that result from patterns in the social structure Systems of stratification Characteristics of stratification systems 8.Rankings apply to groups of people who share characteristics but don't necessarily interact or identify with each other 9. People's life experiences and opportunities depend on the ranking of their social category 10. Ranks of different social categories change very slowly over time Slavery -Extreme form of inequality in which certain people own other people as property -Total subjection of individuals to the interests of their owners -Ancient Greece and Egypt, US, Caribbean -Slavery is illegal in ever y country but it still exists -People still taken against their will -Women and girls enslaved today due to international criminal sex trafficking Caste systems A social system in which one's social status is given for life -Social life is segregated -Live in restricted neighborhoods and barred from intermarrying Caste in India and South Africa India: Brahmins (scholars and spiritual leaders), Ksatriyas (soldiers and rulers), Vaisyas (farmers and merchants), Shudras (laborers and artisans), Dalits (untouchables) South Africa: Apartheid: separated black Africans, INdians, "colored", and Asians from whites -Based entirely on race United States: Brown vs. Board-->ended legal seg. in public schools -Civil Rights Act of 1964: abolished racial discrimination Class: A large group of people who hold similar material prosperity and power Life chances: A person's opportunities for achieving economic prosperity e.g. person from humble background has less chance of ending up wealthy than someone from a more prosperous one Characteristics of class systems Fluidity: No clear-cut boundaries, no legal or religious rules prohibiting mobility Position is partially achieved Movement up and down is possible based on individual achievements Economically based: depends on inequalities in possession of material resources Class systems are large scale and impersonal: operate through large-scale, impersonal associations Kuznets curve: a formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, then stabilizes at a relatively low level Class differences based on: Income: wages and salaries earned from paid occupations, plus unearned money from investments -Unequal distribution of income among class groups Wealth: The assets that an individual owns, such as cash, savings, and checking accounts and investments in stocks, bonds, and real estate -Unequal distribution of wealth across class groups -Racial divisions persist Classes in western society Class differences based on: Education -College education predicts occupation, income, and wealth later in life -Racial differences persist Occupation -Affected by education -Affects income and wealth The upper class in the US: -Broadly composed of the more affluent members of society, especially those who have inherited wealth, own business, and hold large numbers of stocks (shares) Middle class of US: -Composed broadly of those working in white-collar and lower managerial occupations -Occupational prestige, income, and wealth split middle class into upper middle and lower middle classes The working class in the US: -Broadly composed of people working in blue-collar, (manual) occupations The lower class in the US: -Composed of people who work part-time or not at all and whose annual household income is typically about $17k The "underclass" in the US: -Individuals situated at the bottom of the class system, normal composed of people from ethnic minority backgrounds -New "urban poor" Inequality in the US: A growing gap between rich and poor Corporate executives vs. their workers -2007: avg. compensation of top 25 CEOs in US was $125.14 mil -Avg. annual wage of blue-collar worker was $34,892 -2007: Wall-mart CEO's pay was $29.7 million -Avg. pay in China is $3.00 Minorities vs. white Americans Oliver and Shapiro's research on the "wealth gap" -Cause of wealth gap btwn blacks and whites is caused by barriers blacks have encountered in acquiring wealth -e.g. legacy of racism, legal segregation in the South, failure of Civil Rights Act of 1964 to end al forms of discrimination -Less wealth = less social and cultural capital that blacks can use to create greater wealth and pass onto their children Single-parent families vs. married-couple families -Gap widens when race is considered for both types of families Social mobility: movement of individuals or groups between different social positions Intragenerational mobility: Movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy during one's lifetime Vertical mobility: Movement up or down a hierarchy of positions in a social stratification system Exchange mobility: The exchange of positions on the socioeconomic scale that such that talented people move up the economic hierarchy while the less talented moved down Structural mobility: Mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinds of jobs available in a society Industrialism hypothesis: -Societies become more open to societal mobility as they become more industrialized -Jobs are based on skills and experience not ascription -Partial support for hypothesis; ascription still plays strong role Absolute poverty: The minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence Relative poverty: Poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society Measuring poverty Poverty line -An official government measure that defines those living in poverty n the United States -2007: $20,650 annually was the poverty income for a family of four Working poor -People who work, but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line -2010: minimum wage was $7.25/hr for full-time annual income of $14,500 -Only 5% of low-income families that work full-time, full-year qualify for welfare Feminization of poverty -An increase in the proportion of the poor who are female -Growing numbers of women who are single mothers divorced or separated Children in poverty -Related to economic conditions and government spending Explaining poverty Culture of poverty: Poor are socialized to learn values, beliefs, and lifestyles that are incompatible with upward mobility in the class system Dependency culture: Culture of individuals who rely on government welfare subsidies rather than working for pay Social structure: inequities are built into the system that affect opportunities available to people depending on their gender, race, ethnicity, education, or social class Poverty in the US Welfare systems -Provide basic benefits like food, housing, and medical care to the poor -Critics argue that welfare recipients become dependent on a system that is supposed to make them independent Welfare reform: -Time limits -Work training programs Social exclusion Outcome of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live Forms of social exclusion -Housing and neighborhood -Rural areas -The wealthiest in society also exclude themselves Crime and social exclusion Ellliott Currie: America's market-driven social policies lead to social exclusion and crime The homeless -People who have no place to sleep and either say in free shelters or sleep in public places not meant for habitation -Young single men of working age -Families (often single women) with children Theories of Stratification in Modern Societies Karl Marx Class is based on relationship to the means of production -How production of material goods is carried on in a society, including technology and social relations between producers Capitalists: People who own companies, land, or stocks and use them to generate economic returns Working class: People who sell their labor to capitalists and generate surplus value (value of a worker's labor power, in Marxist theory, left over when an employer has repaid the cost of hiring the worker) Max Weber: Besides relationship to the means of production, class divisions depend on skills, credentials, and social status Pariah groups prevented from opportunities -Groups who suffer from negative status discrimination Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore -Stratification is functional -Important positions in society require special skills and offer greater rewards -Most qualified people fill the most important roles and receive the greatest benefit Erik Olin Wright Class divisions based on: -Control over investments or monetary capital -Control over the physical means of production -Control over labor power Capitalists have all control, workers have none, and those in between have some but not all (contradictory class locations: positions in the class structure, particularly routine white-collar and lower managerial jobs, that share characteristics of the class positions both above and below them) Frank Parkin -Class divisions based on relationship to means of production and social closure (practices by which groups separate themselves from other groups) -Practices by which groups separate themselves from other groups -Exclusion -Usurpation Ch. 10: Gender Equality Sex: biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males Gender: Social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex Role of biology: -Field of sociobiology -Not nature vs. nurture, but nature and nurture -Cross-cultural and historical differences between men and women are too great for nature alone to explain behavior Gender socialization: The learning of gender roles through factors such as schooling, media, and family -Refers to process where male and female-typed roles and practices are learned through social agents Social construction of gender: The learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others -Reject all biological bases for gender differences-->socially constructed -Physical body is of interest: gender ID and culturally defined dif are "inextricably linked with indic. human bodies" Gender ID in everyday life -Everything is involved when we "do gender." from our actions to our clothing, mannerisms, speech, and body language -Society functions in a more orderly manner when gender is clearly marked Patriarchy: the dominance of men over women -All known societies are patriarchal, but men exercise power differently than women Gender inequality: the inequality between men and women in terms ofw earth, income, and status Women and the workplace 1to910: women who worked were young, single, poor, immigrants, or ethnic 1978: 14% of married women with preschool aged children worked full-time compared to 63.5% in 2007 Inequalities at work Gender typing: Women holding occupations of lower status and pay, such as secretarial and retail positions, and men holding jobs of higher status and pay, such as managerial and professional positions The gender pay gap Sex segregation: the concentration of men and women in different occupations Jobs dominated by men are paid more than jobs dominated by women 1963 Equal Pay Act: same job, same pay Human capital theory: Argument that individuals make investments in their own "human capital" in order to increase their productivity and earnings Sociological explanations: -Gender socialization -Discouragement and discrimination -Ineffective policies to ensure equal pay for equal work -Women's work is devalued Comparable worth: Policies that attempt to remedy the gender pay gap by adjusting pay so that those in female-dominated jobs are not paid less for equivalent work Glass ceiling: A promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization Glass escalator: Men move up to higher positions in female-dominated occupations in disproportionately higher numbers Sexual harassment: The making of unwanted sexual advances by one indic. toward another, in which the first person persists even though it is clear that the other party is resistant -Quid pro quo: supervisor demands sexual acts from a worker as a job condition or promises work-related benefits in exchange for sexual acts -Hostile work environment: pattern of sexual language, sexual advances, or sexually explicit and demeaning posters making a worker so uncomfortable it's difficult for her to do her job Family and gender issues -Balancing work and child care -Working mothers are paid less -Working mothers (not working fathers) seen as primarily responsible for children Housework -1960s: women performed 32 hours and men performed 4 hours per week of housework -2000s: women's hours dropped to 19 and men's rose to 10 hours per week spent on housework -Second Shift (Arlie Hochschild): wives od most of daily chores while husbands take on manual labor tasks Education and unequal treatment in the classroom -Children are taught gender roles through games, activities, storybooks -Teachers interact with boys and girls differently Gender inequality in politics -Women are underrepresented in all levels of government -There are more women involved n local politics than in national politics -The Democratic Party has the highest number of women politicians Violence against women -Physical and sexual abuse, mutilation, or murder -Rape -The forcing of nonconsensual vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse -Many rapes go unreported -Often accompanied by other forms of violence -Most victims of rape know their perpetrators -"Acquaintance rapes" -Rape can be an instrument of war Economic inequality -Occupational sex segregation -Women work longer days than men -Women make up 60% of the world's working poor -Persistent gender pay gap Political inequality -Women are underrepresented in governments everywhere -The least inequality is in Scandinavian countries -US ranks 68th out of 189 countries in women's political representation -Social movement activism to achieve women's rights Many women around the world are working to achieve the rights that women in developed countries take for granted -Equal pay for equal work, access to education, or voting in elections are foreign to some -Working through est. political parties and channels and social movements designed to achieve rights for women International Women's Movement -2010 United Nations Fifth World Conference on Women -Women's education and empowerment create stronger, more productive economies -Women's representation leads to more peaceful and stable societies Functionalist approaches -Men and women specialize in different tasks to achieve social solidarity and integration -Anthropologist George Murdock: Sexual division to labor is the most logical and efficient way to organize society -Sociologist Talcott Parsons: Women in expressive roles -Care, security, and emotional support to children Men in instrumental roles -Family breadwinner Feminist approaches -Feminist theory: Sociological theory that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women -Liberal feminism -Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and certain social resources such as education and employment, based on sex -Seeks solutions through legislation -Radical feminism -Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life -End inequality by OVERTHROWING THE PATRIARCHY!!! Black feminism -A strand of feminist theory that highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class, and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women -Gender equality rests of racial and class equalities Postmodern feminism -Feminist that challenges the idea of a unitary basis of identity and experience shared by all women -Celebrates the "otherness" of different groups and individuals -There is no overarching solution to gender inequality Ch. 11: Ethnicity and Race Racial literacy: the skills taught to children of multiracial families to help them cope with racial hierarchies and to integrate multiple ethnic identities Ethnicity and race are two different concepts but related Ethnicity: Cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others Race: Differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals -Sociologists call race a social construct -People in a society have decided that particular characteristics are socially meaningful Racialization: the process by which understandings of race are used to classify individuals or groups of people -Europeans did it first when they colonized -Institutionalized into political/economic systems that breed exploitation and inequality -Racial categories vary across time and culture Situational ethnicity: Ethnic identity that is chosen for the moment based on the social setting or situation Symbolic ethnicity: Ethnic identity that is retained only for symbolic importance Racism: Attributing superiority or inferiority to a population that shares certain physically inherited characteristics Institutional racism: Patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become e structured not existing social institutions Antiracism: Forms of thought and/or practice that seek to confront, eradicate, and/or ameliorate racism Prejudice: Holding preconceived ideas about an individual or group (+/-) -These ideas are resistant to change even in the face of new info Discrimination: Behavior or practices that deny to members of a particular group resources or rewards that others can obtain Stereotyping: Thinking in terms of fixed and inflexible categories and characteristics Displacement: Transferring ideas or emotions from their true source to another object Scapegoats: Individual or group blamed for wrongs that were not of their doing Minority group: A group of people in a minority in a given society who, because of their distinct physical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in situations of inequality within that society Why has racism flourished? -Exploitive relations with conquered peoples -European beliefs that white symbolized purity and black symbolized evil -Belief that race was inherited and associated with superiority or inferiority South Africa: Apartheid: white Europeans > native African groups US: KKK and other groups who advocated the removal/segregation of non-white persons based on notions of superiority Genocide: The systematic planned destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group Ethnic cleansing: Creation of ethnically homogenous territories through the mass expulsion of other ethnic populations Segregation: The practice of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group Models of ethnic integration Assimilation: the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture Melting Pot: The idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources Pluralism: A model of ethnic relations in which ethnic cultures retain their independent and sea pare identities yet participate in the rights and powers of citizenship Multiculturalism: A recent outgrowth of pluralism in which ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life Global migration Immigration: The movement of people into one country from another for the purpose of settlement Emigration: The movement of people out of one country in order to settle in another Classic model of migration: -Encourages immigration and offers ci
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