Biology101- Study Guide #1.docx

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University of Massachusetts - Boston
BIOL 101

Bio-101 Review Sheet (ch. 1, 2 &9) Dr. Tara Devi S. Ashok Chapter 1 • What is Biology all about? – Biology is the scientific study of life • What is DNA?- the chemical substance of genes • All forms of life have common features 1. Order- the highly ordered structure that typifies life 2. Reproduction- the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind 3. Growth and Development- consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA 4. Energy processing-the use of chemical energy to power an organisms activities and chemical reactions 5. Response to the environment- ability to respond to environmental stimuli 6. Regulation- ability to control an organisms internal environment within limits that sustain life 7. Evolutionary adaptation- evolving adaptations (passing traits to offspring) • In life’s hierarchy of organization, new properties emerge at each level 1. Biosphere- all of the environments on Earth that support life, 2. Ecosystem- consists of all the organisms living in a particular area and the physical components with which the organisms interact 3. Community- the entire array of organisms in a particular ecosystem 4. Population- all the individuals of a particular species living in a specific area 5. Organism- an individual living thing 6. Organ systems- consists of several organs that cooperate in a specific function 7. Organs- a structure that is composed of tissues and that provides a specific function for the organism 8. Tissues- a group of similar cells that perform a specific function 9. Cells- the fundamental unit of life 10. Organelles- a membrane-bound structure that performs a specific function in a cell 11. Molecules- a cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds 12. Atom- chemical unit composed of protons, neutron, and electrons that cannot be broken down • Emergent properties- new properties that arise in each step upward in the hierarchy life, owing the to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases • Life requires interactions between living and nonliving components 1. Producers- an organism that makes organic food molecules inorganic materials (its own food) 2. Consumers- an organism that gets its food from other living things o Recycle chemicals necessary for life o
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