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PHIL 100

Philosophy Final Study Guide Knowledge:Addresses the nature and scope of human knowledge— Epistemology  Rene Descartes o Struck by falsehoods he accepts as true in his childhooddemolished everything completely and starts again right from the foundations  Whatever he has up till now accepted as most true he has acquired either from the senses or through the senses  Doesn’t trust his senses b/c he could be deceived  Realizes he cannot doubt his own existencefollows from the fact that he is thinking = concludes that he is a thing that thinks  The mind is far better known to him than the body o States that what distinguishes real knowledge from mere belief is the added feature of indubitability – while one may have many beliefs, only those whos truth cannot be doubted will count as knowledge o Descartes rejects Skepticism— The view that knowledge is not possible  Defends a rationalists epistemology— he argues that beliefs justified on the basis of reason satisfy the criterion of certainty  Believes in Logic o Concludes that God does exist b/c the idea of God in his mind cannot be created by him since he is far more perfect  Derives a second proof for the existence of God while bodies are essentially extended, God is essentially existent. o Clearly perceives that the primary attribute of body is extension and that the primary qualities of body are size, shape, breadth etc. o Concludes the body and essence of mind are completely distinct Ourselves: Does the same person persist through time?  Perry o “soul theory”/ Personal Identity  Miller: your mind or soul is immaterial, logged in your body while you are on earth  Your soul sees and smells, but cannot be seen or smelt  Weirdob: how do you know it’s the very same soul you were confronted with before? – “same body, same self” o Numerical Identity – Aperson through time o Quanotative Identity – Sharing characteristics and counting them as one, not two  Dennett o What would happen to one and their sense of self if ones brain were to be separated from its body? o Dennett confused and wants to know whether he is identical to his brain or identical to his body o Concludes: he is in two places at the same time and that he has become a “scattered individual” Our Minds: mind over body problem  Bisson o They’re made Out of Meat  Two aliens, who are astounded at the fact that human beings, given their physical makeup (they’re made of ‘meat’), have any sort of mental life. o Raises the dual issues of the seeming disconnect between our physical baseness and our mental capacities, and of human chauvinism Free Will: reconciling human freedom with the idea that our actions might be determined to take place is the philosophical problem of free will  Taylor o Determinism– the idea that everything that happens, and therefore every choice and action, could not have been other than they are (No such thing as free will because determinism is true) o All such indeterminateness resides solely in conceptions and ideas; the world itself shares none of it. o Everything, including every cause, is the effect of some cause or causes; or that everything is not only determinate but casually determined  Stace o Compatabilism/Soft determinism— there is both free will and determinism because if you understand the word free will it means what is doing the determining. o There is a great difference between a caused action and a forced action o If there is no free will there can be no morality  Ianwagen
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