[PHIL 210] Comprehensive Midterm Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Human nature - Natural man
Noble Savages: Humans in their natural state
Good vs. Bad
Breaking the horse vs. watering a plant
View of natural man
1. socially but minimally so, not meant to be lonely, but in small groups
2. Instinct; impulsive "I want to do that, I will do it" no calculation
3. Pleasure in activity;
4. Not status conscious
Savage= Born free/ natural state
The way society is corrupts how humans were born naturally.
1. Division of Labor: (Taking a whole job and dividing it) -leads to specialization, people become
better at what they do and can do it better than others without the same experience. Aspects:
A. Need to teach people the skills.
B. People have become dependent on each other because of the division of labor, because people
have different skills. More divison= more specialty= more skills=more dependence.
C. Increase in sociality= increase in property= increase in prudential rationality
D. People become self conscious partly because prudence. (self control= thinking about self)
Social Class : Monarchy to working class to underclass. People are constantly trying to move up
the chain. People use those below them and flatter those above to move up the chain.
Everyone has a boss to Rousso meant that the people were not free. It was a trade of freedom for
wealth and comfort. Freedom is a heavy price to pay for wealth and safety.
The way to get freedom and society is a social contract. All agree to submission to all as equals to
Real vs. Status
General will: public good
Citizens submit to public good which is good for themselves as well. Rationally serving the good of
society where you are an equal participant is not loosing dignity.
Basic goal: Keep people independent, active, rational citizens.`
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