[BIOL 2002] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 44 pages long Stu..
[BIOL 2002] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 44 pages long Study Guide!

44 Pages
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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
BIOL 2002
Gibbens Brian

[BIOL 2002] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Science of carbon containing molecules = organic chemistry - C can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms because it has 4 valence electrons - Most commonly forms bonds with C,H,O,N,S - C-C and C-H bonds are nonpolar -called hydrocarbons, hydrophobic and not soluble in water - Most organic molecules and macromolecules contain functional groups - atoms with characteristic chemical structures and properties - C containing molecules may exist in isomers - molecules with identical chemical formulas but different structures and characteristics - Structural isomers contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships - Stereoisomers have identical bonding relationships but different spatial positioning of their atoms - Cis-trans isomers and enantiomers 3.2 - Monomers are the pieces that make up polymers; formed by condensation reactions which produce the larger molecule and a water - Also called a dehydration reaction 3.3 - Carbohydrates - general structure is Cn(H2O)n - Simple carbs break down to make ATP (Source of energy) - Larger carbs store energy, play structural role - Lipids - nonpolar molecules that are made of C H and some O; play a key part in membranes, function in hormones, energy storage, insulators - Proteins - polypeptide with a linear sequence of amino acids; key roles in cell structure and have many cellular functions - Nucleic acids - linear sequence of nucleotides, stores genetic information in genes - Simplest sugars are monomers- monosaccharides - They are joined together by dehydration to form polysaccharides - Forms a glycosidic bond - Starch in plants and glycogen in animal cells are examples of polysaccharides - High degree of branching in glycogen makes it soluble in animal tissue - Starch has small degree of branching and is insoluble - Both are efficient for storing energy - Cellulose has no branching and is used for structure in plants - Chitin = tough structural polysaccharide found in external skeletons - Glycosaminoglycans = large polysaccharides that provide structure in animals 3.4 - Lipids are hydrophobic composed mainly of H and C and some O - Nonpolar and not soluble in water - Triglycerides = glycerol and 3 fatty acids find more resources at oneclass.com
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