Study Guides (292,157)
US (144,525)
UMN (830)
ESCI (20)
Study Guide

ESCI 1001- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 23 pages long!)

23 pages96 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
ESCI 1001
Professor
Edwards
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 23 pages of the document.
UMN
ESCI 1001
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

REVIEW SHEET for SECOND QUIZ (Wednesday, Feb. 14, 100 Rapson): ESCI 1001/1101
(Larry Edwards)
Atoms and bonds
1. Name three sub-atomic particles.
a. Protons (양자), electrons (전자), and neutrons (중성자)
2. Where are they located in an atom?
a. The nucleus
3. What electrical charge does each have?
a. Proton; positive electric charge
b. Neutron; neutral electric charge
c. Electron; negative electric charge
4. What characterizes atoms of the same element?
a. They have the same number of protons
5. What is atomic number? mass number? charge? ion? cation? anion? an isotope?
a. Atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus of an element
b. Mass number: the sum of the masses of an elements protons and neutrons
c. Cation: a positively charged iron
d. Anion: a negatively charged ion
e. Isotope: atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
6. What is a chemical bond?
a. The electrostatic attraction between negative and positive charges that hold
together ions or atoms
7. What are the 4 types of chemical bonds and what is the basis for each of these
bonds? Which of these 4 is the strongest? The weakest?
a. 4 types of chemical bonds
i. Ionic bonds: simplest chemical bond that forms by electrostatic attraction
between ions of opposite charge 2
ii. covalent bonds: when atoms share electrons. Results in a molecule
(strongest)
iii. metallic bond: Reaction between molecules within metals called alkali
reactive force. It is the sharing of a sea of delocalized electrons a lattice of
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

positive ions, where the electrons act as a “glue” giving the substance a
definite structure 3
iv. Van der Waals bond: intermolecular forces. Van der Waals’ forces are
relatively weak compared to covalent bonds 4
Mineralogy
1. What are the three most common elements in the earth’s crust? Of the oceanic
crust, mantle, and continental crust which is most mafic? least mafic? most
silicic/felsic? least silicic/felsic? Which is ultramafic, mafic, intermediate?
a. In the earth’s crust
i. Oxygen, Silicon, and Aluminum
b. Mantle: Olivine (ultra-mafic) (least silicic)
c. Continental Crust: plagioclase (more silicic) (less mafic)
d. Oceanic crust: plagioclase (intermediate)
2. What do the terms silicon, silica, and silicic mean?
a. Silicon: element whose byproducts make up 90% of Earth’s mass
b. Silica: Silicon dioxide, found in nature as quartz
c. Silicic: containing silicon
3. What is a polymorph?
a. Alternative structures formed from a single chemical compound
4. Can a material melt or freeze as a result of a change in pressure? or does temperature
need to change as well. How does this question bear on the question of why the outer
core is liquid and the inner core solid?
5. What is a mineral?
a. A naturally occurring substance that is solid and stable at room temperature
6. What are silicates? a silica tetrahedron? What is a “bridging oxygen”? a non-
bridging oxygen?
a. Silicates: Minerals contain silicon
b. Tetrahedron: Building blocks of silicates. A group of one silicon ion and four
oxygen ions
c. Bridging and non-bridging: Oxygen ions which act as bridges between structural
units are called bridging oxygens
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version


Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.